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human geography

the study of humans and the ways they live, the things they value and believe, and how they affect and are affected by the environment.

physical geography

the study of all the things in the natural environment and how they affect humans and are affected by human beings.


the shared values, beliefs, and ways of society. Gives roles to individuals, helps create one's identity and creates relationships within groups

cultural traits

the individual characteristics of a culture.


happens slowly; traits are always being added.


new ideas and ways to do things that are accepted


when a trait spreads through a society and to another


plants and animals grown for use by humans

subsistence farming

growing only enough to feed yourself and family; poverty

commercial farming

growing food for the purpose of selling it


hatred or dislike simply towards another person's race


(mental action) base opinions of an individual because of a group to which he or she belongs. Also based on real or imagined differences between groups. Usually benefits the dominant group at the expense of minorities.


(opinion) Judgment about an individual based on the real or imagined characteristics of a group. Prejudices put people in these.


(Action) occurs when Prejudices are translated into actions.


the relationship between the earth and people


created and advanced with more exploration and travel. Began with greeks documenting trade routes to pass on to other people

simple maps



the first greek person to measure distances on these documents (maps) and is known as the Father of Map Making.


the study of maps


map makers

map projection

different ways of presenting a round earth on a flat surface


accurate shapes and sizes, but bad for navigation and distances


accurate shapes and good for navigation, but distorts sizes in extreme latitudes


accurate sizes, but shapes are distorted


correct sizes and shapes but distorts edges

directional indicators

tells which ways N, S, E, W are

compass rose

a diagram of arrows that point to all four principle directions


represents distance between 2 points on a map


explains what symbols mean

inset map

used to show a small portion of a larger map


pattern of lines that circle the earth in east and west and north and south directions

grid system

lines of longitude and latitude measured in degrees


the name of the absolute location of a place using latitude and longitude


half a sphere. Splits N/S at the Equator:
Northern hemisphere
Southern hemisphere
Splits E/W at the Prime Meridian called the International Date Line
Eastern Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere

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