Contemporary issues in bio- Williams
Terms in this set (91)
Sun is the center of the solar system
The earth is the center of the universe
General science teacher who broke the Tennessee law against teaching evolution in a scientific format. He was found guilty and fined.
Hubble's Big Bang Theory research
estimated that the age of the universe was 20 billion years old
How old is the universe now thought to be?
8-12 billion years old
How long ago was Earth formed?
4.6 billion years ago
Colony of bacteria, oldest fossils on earth (3.5 billion years old)
How many known species are on earth?
Darwin recognized that varieties of domestic animals resulted from
Individuals within species are variable, some variations passed to offspring, more offspring are produced that can survive, survival and reproduction are not random
What percent of all species that ever lived are extinct?
A geographical location that is split in such a way that individuals can't reproduce in that area. These areas now evolve independently.
3.2 million year old ancestor of humans, found in Ethiopia in 1974
4.4 million year old ancestor, found in Ethiopia
Humans are thought to have evolved how many years ago in an area that is now Ethiopia?
What is a mutation?
a change in the nucleotide base sequence of DNA. Passed down to all of that person's descendants
Pass from father to son
Mitochondrial DNA can be tracked by scientists because it is passed from..
Mother to daughter
All humans are related to..
A single woman who lived roughly 150,000 years ago in Africa
Percent of college students who admittedly used ADHD meds
How many Americans have used prescription drugs for non-medical purposes?
How many people in the US over age 18 suffer from major depression?
How many americans 5 and older are on anti-depressants?
How many teens suffer from major depression
1 in 8
How many people suffer from a depression episode at some point in their life?
What is the 3rd leading cause of death in 10-24 years
What is deemed dementia-related symptoms?
impaired memory AND language
Is there a cure for dementia?
No, but drugs can help alleviate symptoms
Clinical depression (5+ of symptoms on list)
Depressed in morning, fatigue, hypersomnia, loss of interest, suidical ideation, restless, weight loss/gain
How many years ago did agricultural systems not exist & humans were hunter gatherers?
12,000 years ago
What made large cities and highly advanced civilization possible?
Domestication of wild plants and animals and the development of agricultural systems
When did the domestication process begin?
12,000 years ago
When were highly advanced civilizations present?
Potato famine in Ireland was caused by
genetically uniform crops and lack of pesticides to protect them
DDT is also called
What does DDT do?
It kills insects and body lice, and is known to be singly effective against many of the most destructive insects that feed upon crops
What is biomagnification?
The concentration of pesticides in higher levels of food chains
Who is the world's leading producer of genetically modified crops?
Agricultural plants have been modified to..
Contain human genes to produce human proteins to fight human diseases
What do B cells do?
Make antibodies that neutralize microbes with a protein coat
What is biopharming?
animal or plant gene is inserted into an agricultural plant
What are foods with unnatural proteins called?
What are crops with human genes?
What is good and bad about genetically engineered agricultural plants?
You can insert proteins and produce antibiotics and it is cheaper than traditional ways. But, if a plant pollenates plant species, another species can be affected, also it can get in our food
When did continents start to drift apart?
65 million years ago
Species in food webs have evolved together so that they are dependent on the presence of each other.
Where did Gypsy moths come from?
Difference between killer bees and European bees?
Killer bees are more aggressive and their victim receives more stings per minute. Killer bee is a hybrid of the African and European bee.
Migration of killer bee from Brazil to U.S.
History of fire ants
Arrived in Alabama on a boat from South America
Treatment method for fire ants
Let them eat bait, treat the mounds
What insect is used to rid of fire ants?
What is biodiversity?
Variety of genes, specie, and natural communities that exist within a particular place
How many species have been identified?
How many species are beetles?
How many named species is basic info known for?
How many species are identified each year?
The 25 hotspots make up how much of the land surface of the Earth?
Hotspots contain what percentage of all plants?
How many non-fish vertebrates are found in hotspots?
Causes of extinction
habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, introduced species, overexploitation of species, pollution, climate change
At the current rate, Amazon rainforest will be how much of the original size by 2040?
50% reduction in habitat results in how much loss of species?
Extinction is deemed after how many years without an animal sighting?
Rosy Periwinkle is a flower that evolved on the island of Madagascar. What power does it have?
Reduces death due to leukemia and Hodgkin's disease
Caerin (comes from amphibians)
Strong inhibition of HIV virus by skin peptides
Epibatidine (comes from amphibians)
analgesic 200 times more powerful than morphine without many of the side effects
Natural history of the TX horned lizard
Feeds on harvester ants, immune to their venom, live underground, adapted to living in deserts, shoot blood out of eyes, defense is camo, eaten by snakes, birds, and coyotes. (not found east of I-35, can't live in highly irrigated habitats where ants may be poisoned)
Where was the red fire ant imported from?
How much of our body composition is water?
How many proteins are humans made up of?
All agricultural systems are based on plants doing what?
Converting the energy of the sun to the energy of sugar through the process of photosynthesis
Water-dependent agricultural systems developed over the last how many years?
How many people on Earth do not have access to safe drinking water?
Caused by bacteria, produces toxin that causes bleeding from latching on to small intestine, causes severe dehydration and diarrhea, potentially fatal
How much water on Earth is fresh?
Less than 3%
aquifer, contains fossil water
Best ways to conserve water?
Eat more fruits, veggies, and less meat
Texas rivers are impounded by how many major dams?
What is xeriscaping?
A method of landscaping that uses plants that are well adapted to the local area and are drought-resistant
What caused the dust bowl of the 1930s?
A cessation of planting coupled with a series of droughts
What is acid rain composed of?
Sulfuric and nitric acids from the burning of fossil fuels
What happened in 1990 to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide?
Congress amended the Clean Air Act
What animal has the highest mercury concentration?
Large piscivorous fish like the largemouth bass
What is the primary pathway of mercury to humans?
Effects of mercury contaminated fish on humans
Impaired neuro development of unborn
Sources of greenhouse gases
Fuel mining, preparation and transport, plant construction, power production
Pros and cons of hydropower:
Generates lower greenhouse gas than coal and oil, but dams interfere with fish migrations and blocking movement of nutrients
Pros and cons of wind power:
low greenhouse gas emission, but kills too many animals
Pros and cons of nuclear power:
low greenhouse gas emission, but there's radiation from nuclear waste that is hazardous (possibility of nuclear bomb from leftover radioactive fuel), storage is controversial
US has how much of its energy produced by 104 nuclear power plants in 2012?