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AP Psych Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Empiricism
the view that knowledge that comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Neuroscience
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavior Genetics
how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral
how we learn observable responses
Cognitive
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Social-cultural
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Basic Research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Clinical Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
SQ3R
a study method incorporating five steps: Study, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review
Plato and Socrates
these people concluded that mind is separable from body and continues after the body dies, and that knowledge is innate (built within us)
Aristotle
was different from his teachers because he believed that knowledge came from careful observation; said knowledge is NOT preexisting
Aristotle
came up with the theory that knowledge is not preexisting; it grows from the experiences stored in our memories
Wundt
established the first psychology laboratory
Descartes
agreed with Socrates and Plato; he conjectured how the physical body and the brain communicate
Bacon
believed that human understanding easily supposes a greater degree of order and equality in things than it really finds
Locke
argued that the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes
Wundt
conducted psychology's first experiment
Titchener
developed the idea of structuralism
James
believed in studying the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings; developed functionalism
Calkins
female student of James, she was refused a Harvard degree; pioneer in memory research and American Psychological Association President
Washburn
first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D.
Watson
demonstrated conditional responses on "little Albert"
Skinner
a leading "behaviorist". he rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
Pavlov
pioneered the study of learning
Freud
controversial personality theorist
Piaget
studied children
Watson
defined psychology as "the science of observable behavior"