32 terms

APES Atmosphere Vocab

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Trophoshere
layer from ground to 10km, where weather occurs, air is most dense
Greenhouse effect
solar radiation passes through atmosphere, some reflected, some absorbed by greenhouse gases, warming of earth's surface
Stratosphere
10-50km, Ozone at bottom of layer, temp increases with distance, air is less dense
Weather
short term changes in atmosphere variables: temp, precipitation, wind and pressure
climate
average weather conditions over time (30 years)
Prevailing winds
average wind direction over a particular point
Coriolis effect
rotation of earth causes moving objects to deflect along their paths
Convection currents
the transfer of heat by the mass movement of heated particles into an area of cooler fluid
Horizontal airflow
the air and winds that move east to west or vice versa
Dew point
the atmospheric temp below which water droplets begin to condense and dew can form
precipitation
rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground
convection cell
Hadley, Farrel, Polar cells, system of air that rises which hot and drops when cooled
Hadley cell
convection cell in which air rises at equator and sinks at medium latitudes
Trade winds
wind blowing steadily toward equator
Jet stream
narrow high speed currents of wind that occur in upper troposphere
monsoon
storms with lots of heavy rain, form especially near coast
Rain shadow effect
low precipitation on leeward side of a mountain when prevailing winds flow up and over a high mountain range, creating semiarid/arid conditions
Typhoon
a tropical storm in region of Indian or western Pacific oceans
El Nino
warmer conditions on east coast of Americas that create a warmer and rainier climate, warm water is distributed
La Nina
cooler than normal sea-surface temps in central and eastern tropical Pacific ocean that impact global weather patterns
ENSO events
system that tracks El Nino and La Nina
Mesosphere
middle layer of atmosphere, temp decreases, meteors burn up here
Thermosphere/Ionosphere
temp increases, ultraviolet, x-ray radiation is absorbed by molecules, radio waves bounce, ISS
Exosphere
last layer of atmosphere, temp decreases, air molecules escape atmosphere
Radiation
emitted from sun, electromagnetic energy
Conduction
heat transfer from high to low energy
Polar jet
narrow wind current near poles
Subtropical jet
narrow wind current near 30 degrees
Thermocline
narrow zone of rapidly dropping temp
Warm front
advancing warm air replacing cooler air mass
Cold front
advancing mass of cold air
Tropical Cyclone
giant, rotating tropical storms, strong winds, causes upward spiral of massive clouds