39 terms

Pulmonary System Disorders flashcards for Nursing Students #3

Definition of Disorders, Lab Values, Diagnostic Tests
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Acute Respiratory Failure
inadequate gas exchange due to damage to lungs
Acute Respiratory Distress
life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting into the blood.
Pulmonary Embolus
a blockage of an artery in the lungs by fat, air, a blood clot, or tumor cells; Fat Emboli,Air Emboli
COPD
progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe; Chronic bronchitis-Inflammation of Bronchi(lung infection),
Emphysema-overdistention of the airspaces of the lungs,
Asthma
Therapeutic Range for Aminophylline
10-20 mcg/mL (Bronchodilator)
Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites can cause pneumonia.
Pleurisy
Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that leads to chest pain (usually sharp) when you take a breath or cough. Also called pleuritis.
Tuberculosis
Highly contagious infection caused by Mycobaterium TB. Transmitted by Droplet and use Airborne Precautions.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea, high fatality rate;Coronavirus.
Legionnaries Disease
Severe form of Pneumonia — lung inflammation usually caused by infection. Legionnaires' disease is caused by a bacterium known as legionella. Bacterial growth stored in water.
CBC
the measure of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.
Chest Xray
Diagnostic radiology procedure used to examine the chest and the organs and structures located in the chest; used to assess the lungs, as well as the heart (either directly or indirectly) by looking at the heart itself.
Pulmonary Function Test
a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation;(ex: Spirometry)
Lung Scan
nuclear scanning test used to detect a blood clot that is preventing normal blood flow to part of a lung (pulmonary embolism);(Ex: Ventilation Scan/Perfusion Scan)
Bronchoscopy
To view airways and diagnose the lung disease; a device used to see the inside of the lungs. It can be flexible or rigid. Usually, a flexible bronchoscope is used. The flexible bronchoscope is a tube less than 1/2 inch wide and about 2 feet long. NPO for 8-12 hours before test;NPO after test until Gag Reflex return.
Arterial Blood Gas
analysis provides information on the following:
1] Oxygenation of blood through gas exchange in the lungs. 2] Carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination through respiration. 3] Acid-base balance or imbalance in extra-cellular fluid (ECF).
HCO3
24-26 mEq/L; Calculated value of the amount of bicarbonate in the bloodstream
CO2
35-45 mEq/L; measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum.
PaO2
80%-90%; partial pressure of oxygen that is dissolved in arterial blood.
New Born - Acceptable range 40-70 mm Hg. Elderly: Subtract 1 mm Hg from the minimal 80 mm Hg level for every year over 60 years of age: 80 - (age- 60) (Note: up to age 90)
SaO2
> 95%; The arterial oxygen saturation.
pH
7.35- 7.45; a measurement of acidity or alkalinity
ROME
Respiratory Opposite; Metabolic Equal
Respiratory Acidosis
pH down, CO2 up, and HCO3 up;
Metabolic Acidosis
pH down, CO2 down, and HCO3 down
Respiratory Alkalosis
pH up, CO2 down, and HCO3 down
Metabolic Alkalosis
pH up, CO2 up, and HCO3 up
PaCO2
35-45 mm Hg; The amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood.
Nursing Interventions
High fowlers Position, Pursed lip breathing, Administer O2,
Thoracentesis
Used to remove fluid from the chest cavity. Pt in sitting position resting over bedside table.
Sputum AFB test
TB is suspected
Pneumothorax
partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Air in the interpleural space; mediastinal shift
Hemothorax
partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Blood in the interpleural space.
Bronchodilators
Relax smooth muscle and increase respiration; EX: epinephrine/albuterol
Anti-Cholinergic Bronchodilators
Prevents bronchospasms caused by acetylcholine; EX: ipratropium bromide/atropine
Methylaxanthine Bronchodilators
Relaxes smooth muscles of the Tracheobrachial tree; EX: aminophylline/theophyline
Side Effects of Methylaxanthine Bronchodilators
Tachycardia, Hypotension, Arrhythmias, GI distress, Tremors, Anxiety, Headache
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
reducing inflammation; EX: Intal/Beclovent
Order of Inhalation Use
Bronchodilator First, than Corticosteroids second.
Anti-Tuberculosis Agents
EX: Isoniazid/Rifampin/Ethambutol; Side Effects-Turns urine, saliva, sweat, sputum orange in color.
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