life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting into the blood.
a blockage of an artery in the lungs by fat, air, a blood clot, or tumor cells; Fat Emboli,Air Emboli
progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe; Chronic bronchitis-Inflammation of Bronchi(lung infection), Emphysema-overdistention of the airspaces of the lungs, Asthma
Therapeutic Range for Aminophylline
10-20 mcg/mL (Bronchodilator)
Inflammation of the lungs caused by infection. Bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites can cause pneumonia.
Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that leads to chest pain (usually sharp) when you take a breath or cough. Also called pleuritis.
Highly contagious infection caused by Mycobaterium TB. Transmitted by Droplet and use Airborne Precautions.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
acute viral respiratory infection that begins like the flu but quickly progresses to severe dyspnea, high fatality rate;Coronavirus.
Severe form of Pneumonia — lung inflammation usually caused by infection. Legionnaires' disease is caused by a bacterium known as legionella. Bacterial growth stored in water.
the measure of the concentration of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.
Diagnostic radiology procedure used to examine the chest and the organs and structures located in the chest; used to assess the lungs, as well as the heart (either directly or indirectly) by looking at the heart itself.
Pulmonary Function Test
a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation;(ex: Spirometry)
nuclear scanning test used to detect a blood clot that is preventing normal blood flow to part of a lung (pulmonary embolism);(Ex: Ventilation Scan/Perfusion Scan)
To view airways and diagnose the lung disease; a device used to see the inside of the lungs. It can be flexible or rigid. Usually, a flexible bronchoscope is used. The flexible bronchoscope is a tube less than 1/2 inch wide and about 2 feet long. NPO for 8-12 hours before test;NPO after test until Gag Reflex return.
Arterial Blood Gas
analysis provides information on the following: 1] Oxygenation of blood through gas exchange in the lungs. 2] Carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination through respiration. 3] Acid-base balance or imbalance in extra-cellular fluid (ECF).
24-26 mEq/L; Calculated value of the amount of bicarbonate in the bloodstream
35-45 mEq/L; measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum.
80%-90%; partial pressure of oxygen that is dissolved in arterial blood. New Born - Acceptable range 40-70 mm Hg. Elderly: Subtract 1 mm Hg from the minimal 80 mm Hg level for every year over 60 years of age: 80 - (age- 60) (Note: up to age 90)
> 95%; The arterial oxygen saturation.
7.35- 7.45; a measurement of acidity or alkalinity
Respiratory Opposite; Metabolic Equal
pH down, CO2 up, and HCO3 up;
pH down, CO2 down, and HCO3 down
pH up, CO2 down, and HCO3 down
pH up, CO2 up, and HCO3 up
35-45 mm Hg; The amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in arterial blood.
High fowlers Position, Pursed lip breathing, Administer O2,
Used to remove fluid from the chest cavity. Pt in sitting position resting over bedside table.
Sputum AFB test
TB is suspected
partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Air in the interpleural space; mediastinal shift
partial or complete collapse of a lung as a result of accumulation of Blood in the interpleural space.
Relax smooth muscle and increase respiration; EX: epinephrine/albuterol
Prevents bronchospasms caused by acetylcholine; EX: ipratropium bromide/atropine
Relaxes smooth muscles of the Tracheobrachial tree; EX: aminophylline/theophyline
Side Effects of Methylaxanthine Bronchodilators
Tachycardia, Hypotension, Arrhythmias, GI distress, Tremors, Anxiety, Headache
reducing inflammation; EX: Intal/Beclovent
Order of Inhalation Use
Bronchodilator First, than Corticosteroids second.
EX: Isoniazid/Rifampin/Ethambutol; Side Effects-Turns urine, saliva, sweat, sputum orange in color.
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