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Politics of the United States
Civics Mid Term SG
Terms in this set (82)
a foreign-born resident of the United States who has not been naturalized
community member who owes loyalty to the government and is entitled to protection from it
A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state government
a person who moves permanently to a new country
a legal process to obtain citizenship
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
Declaration of Independence
Freedom of the U.S. from Britan
Locke wrote that all people were born equal with certain God-given rights, called natural rights
freedoms people possess relating to life, liberty, and property
an agreement among people in a society with a government
any change in the Constitution
those who opposed ratification of the Constitution
one of several main parts of the Constitution
Articles of Confederation
the first constitution of the United States
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments that limit the power of government
checks and balances
a system in which each branch of government is able to check, or restrain, the power of the others
powers granted directly to the national government by the Constitution
the branch of government that carries out laws
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
supporter of the Constitution
the branch of government that interprets laws
the lawmaking branch of government
the principal that a ruler or a government is not all-powerful; a government that can do only what the people allow it to do
necessary and proper clause
allows congress to use powers not directly listed in the constitution (implied powers)
the idea that power lies with the people
the opening section of the Constitution
separation of powers
the split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
the clause in Article VI of the Constitution that makes federal laws prevail over state laws when there is a conflict
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments that limit the power of government
Brown vs. Board of Education
"separate but equal" violated equal protection of 14th amendment
ruled segregation of public schools unconstitutional
freedoms we have to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment
the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law
Civil Rights Act of 1964
law that banned segregation public places
The social separation of the races
Voting Rights Act of 1965
law that banned literacy tests for voting
gives congress the right to make laws necessary and proper to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of article 1.
power that the U.S. Congress has that is specifically listed in the Constitution
House of Representatives
the lower house of Congress, consisting of a different number of representatives from each state, depending on population
to accuse government officials of misconduct in office
power that Congress has that is not stated explicitly in the Constitution
in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, the political party to which more than half the members belong
in both the House of Representatives and the Senate, the political party to which fewer than half the members belong
the upper house of Congress, consisting of two representatives from each state
Senate President pro tempore
He or she is from the majority party and is usually its most senior member. The president pro tempore is also in the line of succession to fill the presidency, coming after the Speaker of the House
Speaker of the House
He or she presides over the House and leads its majority party. The Speaker guides legislation through the House and leads floor debates. If anything happens to the president and vice president, the Speaker is next in line to become president, provided he or she is legally qualified.
when the president says no to a bill being passed
an official representative of a country's government
a group of advisers to the president that includes the heads of 15 top-level executive departments
The president's most important job is to carry out the nation's laws. To do this, the president is in charge of 15 cabinet departments and many agencies.
Commander in Chief
Under the Constitution, the president is commander in chief of the nation's armed forces.
the non direct way citizens vote for president/ vice president
a rule or command the president gives out that has the force of law
Agencies and the employees of the executive branch of government
Foreign aid consists of money, food, military help, or other supplies given to other countries.
a nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations
the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm
a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment
A formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries
outlines the lawmaking powers of the legislative branch
sets out an executive branch
Article II also lists the president's powers
Article III sets up the judicial branch of government.
Article IV explains the relationship between the states and the national government.
Article V describes when and how the Constitution can be changed
Article VI declares the Constitution the "supreme Law of the Land."
Article VII describes how the Constitution is to be ratified.
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition
Right to own guns
No housing soldiers in private homes in peacetime
No unreasonable searches and seizures (taking away things) and search warrants have to be based on probable cause (almost definite about finding evidence)
S: no self-incrimination(don't have to say if you did the crime)
I: indictments by grand jury (enough evidence has to be found to bring the case to trial)
D: due process (everyone has to go through the process)
E: limits eminent domain (ex: government can't come to you and knock down your house without you having notice and without them paying you a fee)
D: no double jeopardy (can't be charged for the same crime twice.
Speedy public trial by jury for criminal cases
Right to a lawyer
Right to jury trial in civil cases, don't have to have a judge
No excessive bail or fines
No cruel and unusual punishment
Citizens have right beyond those stated in the constitution (unumerated rights)
Any powers that are not given to the national government are reserved to state
The Thirteenth Amendment was the first of the Civil War amendments. Approved after the war in 1865, it outlawed slavery, and forced labor
First, it defined an American citizen as anyone "born or naturalized in the United States.
Second, the amendment said that every state must give all citizens "equal protection of the laws."
Third, the amendment forbade state governments from unreasonable action or interference with U.S. citizens. Finally, the amendment said that states cannot take a person's "life, liberty, or property" unless they follow due process.
It says that no state may deny a person the right to vote because of race.
gave women the right to vote
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment makes it clear that if the president dies or leaves office, the vice president becomes president. It goes further, though
lowered voting age in federal and state elections to 18 yrs old
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