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339 terms

Human Development 1150

STUDY
PLAY
Maturation
The genetically determined natural unfolding course of growth
Normative Approach
Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
Psychoanyalytic Perspective
Emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality (Freud).
Pscyhosexual Theory
Emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development.
Psychosocial Theory
Erickson sees 8 stages of development characterized by psychological conflicts that must be resolved for healthy development to occur.
Behaviorism
An approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior.
Behavior Modification
Consists of procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.
Sensorimotor
Piaget's theory (stage) 0-2 years. Child interacts with environment by reflex response. Reflexes are replaced by purposeful movement. Child is self centered & recognizes people, both familiar and not familiar.
Preoperational
2-7 years, lacks operations (reversible mental processes); exhibits egocentric thinking; lacks concept of conservations; uses symbols (such as words or mental images) to solve simple problems or to talk about things that are not present.
Concrete Operational
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development; 7-11 yrs; replaces intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations; can see things in another perspective; develop ability to empathize; principle of conservation seen.
Formal Operational
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, from age 11 and beyond, when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical events. Thought is abstract and hypothetical. Logical thought. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Idealism (understand love and justice). Imaginary audience (others are evaluating as much as you evaluate yourself).
Information Processing
An approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
It brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns.
Sensitive Period
A time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences.
Ethology
An approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
It seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age.
Sociocultural Theory
It focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotsky, social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
Ecological Systems Theory
It views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Microsystem
In ecological systems theory, the innermost level of the environment, consisting of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings.
Mesosystem
The middle sphere of the ecological model, which encompasses the connections among settings that include the child and how these connections influence the child. (home, school, neighborhood, and childcare)
Exosystem
In ecological theory, this is involved when experiences in another social setting - in which the individual does not have an active role - influence what the individual experiences in an immediate context.
Macrosystem
Outermost level of bronfenbernner's model that is not a specific context but consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources.
Chronosystem
In ecological systems theory, temporal changes in environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes can be imposed externally or arise from within the organism, since people select, modify, and create many of their own settings and experiences.
Dynamic System Perspective
The child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. The system is constantly in motion.
Naturalistic Observations
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Structured Observation
Investigator sets up a lab situation that evoke the behavior of interest so that every particpant has equal opportuniity to display response.
Clinical Interview
An interview method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view.
Structured Interviews
Each participant is asked the same set of questions in the same way.
Case Study
Research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
Ethnography
A qualitative technique that is directed toward understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation.
Correlational Design
Researchers gather information on already-existing groups of individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, and make no effort to alter their experiences.
Correlation Coefficient
A number that describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with one another.
Experimental Design
Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions.
Independent Variable
Variable that is changed in an experiment.
Dependent Variable
Variable that is measured in an experiment.
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Longitudinal Design
A research design in which the same people are studied or tested repeatedly over time.
Cohorts Effects
Longitudinal studies examine that development of cohorts - children born at the same time who are influences by particular popular cultural and historical conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to all children developing at other times.
Cross-Sectional Design
Comparing groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time.
Sequential Designs
Conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times.
Microgenetic Design
An adaptions of the longitudinal approach, presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. Researcher observe how change occurs.
Phenotypes
The physical appearence or visible traits of an organism.
Genotypes
The genetic makeup, or combination of alleles.
Chromosomes
Rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that store and transmit genetic information.
DNA
Chromosomes are make this chemical substance.
Genes
A segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome.
Mitosis
THe process of DNA duplicating itself.
Gametes
Sex cells.
Meiosis
(Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms,
Crossing Over
The interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis.
Zygote
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
Autosome
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Sex Chromosomes
One of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual.
Allele
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait.
Heterozygous
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
Dominant Recessive Inheritance
A pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent.
Modifier Genes
Genes that can enhance or dilute the effects of other genes.
Incomplete Dominance
One allele is not completely dominant over the other allele.
X Linked Inheritance
A pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so that males are more likely to be affected.
Genomic Imprinting
Alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, so that one pair member (either the mother's or father's) is activated, regardless of its makeup.
Mutation
A sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA.
Polygenic Inheritance
A pattern in which many genes all influence a single trait.
Genetic Counseling
Guidance for prospective parents on the likelihood of genetic disorders in their future children.
Prenatal Diagnostic Methods
Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth.
Coparenting
Mutually supporting each other's parenting behaviors.
Socioeconomic Class
Factors that affect include educational level, employment stability, wages, marital status, household income, household size, citizenship, access to healthcare.
Subcultures
Subgroups within a larger culture that have unique values, ideas, and attitudes.
Extended-Family Households
A household in which one of more adult relatives live with the family unit.
Individualistic Societies
People think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs.
Collectivist Societies
People define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals.
Behavioral Genetics
Field of study devoted to discovering the genetic bases for personality characteristics.
Heritability Estimates
Measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors.
Kinship Studies
Compare the characteristics of family members.
Range Reaction
Each person's unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.
Canalization
The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes,
Genetic-Environments Correlation
Our Genes influence the environments to which we are exposed.
Niche-Picking
The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity.
Blastocyst
Stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells.
Embryonic Disk
A small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new organism will develop.
Chorion
Outermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo.
Placenta
Organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother.
Umbilical Cord
A cord or funicle connecting the embryo or fetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the fetus.
Amnion
Thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo.
Amniotic Fluid
The serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion.
Embryo
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
Neural Tube
A tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop.
Fetus
An unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal.
Vernix
A white cheese-like protective material that covers the skin of a fetus.
Languo
Downy hair on face or limbs.
Age of Viability
The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth.
Teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
A consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure that causes multiple problems, notably brain damage.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (p-FAS)
Characterized by 2 of the 3 facial abnormalities & brain injury, again evident in a least 3 areas of impaired functioning. Mothers of children with p-FAS generally drank alcohol in smaller quantities and children's defects vary with the timing & length of alcohol exposure
Alcholol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)
Three mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities (from alcohol).
Rh Factor Incompatibility
When the mother is Rh-negative (lacks the Rh blood protein) and the father is Rh-positive (has the protein), the baby may inherit the father's Rh -positive blood type. If even a little of a fetus's Rh-positive blood crosses the placenta into the Rh-negative mother's bloodstream, she begins to form antibodies to the foreign Rh protein. If these enter the fetus's system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen sypply to organs and tissues.
Dilation and Effacement of the Cervix
A process where the cervix begins to thin forming a clear channel from the uterus into the birth canal.
Transition
Frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely.
Apgar Scale
Evaluates infant on heart rate, respiratory condition, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color
Fetal Monitors
Electronic instruments that track the baby's heart rate during labor.
Induced Labor
A labor started artificially by breaking the amnion and giving the mother a hormone that stimulates contractions.
Cesarean Delivery
The delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus.
Breech Position
A position of the baby in the uterus that would cause the buttocks or feet to be delivered first.
Anoxia
Deprivation of oxygen.
Preterm Infants
Infants born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term.
Small Fordate Infants
Babies below their expected weight.
Reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
States of Arousal
Degrees of sleep and wakefulness.
Rapid-Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
An "irregular" sleep state in which brain wave activity is similar to that of the waking state; eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven; and slight body movements occur.
Non-Rapid-Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep
A "regular" sleep state in which the body is almost motionless and heart rate, breathing, and brain wave activity are slow and regular.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).
Visual Acuity
Sharpness of vision for either distance or near.
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
Evaluates the newborn's reflexes, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions.
Cephalocaudal Trend
An organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from head to tail.
Proximodistal Trend
The center-outward direction of motor development.
Skeletal Age
A measure of physical maturation based on the child's level of skeletal development.
Epiphyses
Special growth centers in the bones at the ends.
Fontanels
A soft, membrane-covered space between the bones at the front and the back of a newborn's skull.
Neurons
Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
Synaptic Pruning
A process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost.
Glial Cells
Cells in the nervous system that are not neurons but that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Myelination
The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron.
Cerebral Cortex
The fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control.
Prefrontal Cortex
A region of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans, important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality
Lateralization
Localization of function on either the right or left sides of the brain.
Brain Plasticity
The brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
Experience-Expectant Brain Growth
The young brains rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences - opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment.
Experience Dependent Brain Growth
Consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that occur throughout our lives, varying widely across individuals and cultures.
Growth Faltering
When child has below average hight weight of circumference.
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
Unconditioned Stimulus
Naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
Unconditioned Response
An automatic response to a particular natural stimulus, such as salivation to meat.
Conditioned Stimulus
An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response
An acquired response that is under the control of (conditional on the occurrence of) a stimulus,
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Reinforcer
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Punishment
Any event that weakens the behavior it follows.
Habituation
A gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation.
Recovery
A new stimulus causes responsiveness to return to a high level.
Imitation
Learning through copying the actions of someone else.
Mirror Neurons
Neurons that are activated by performing an action or be seeing another person perform the same.
Dynamic Systems Theory of Motor Development
Mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. when motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment.
Statistical Learning Capacity
Analyzing the speech stream for patterns- regularly occurring sequences of sounds-they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months.
Contrast Sensitivity
The ability to detect differences in light and dark areas in a visual pattern.
Sensorimotor Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Schemes
Mental representations of categories of objects, events, and people.
Adaptation
This involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
Assimilation
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
Accommodation
The modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality.
Circular Reaction
It provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. The reaction is circular because as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again a sensorimotor response to that first occured by chance becomes stregnthened into a new scheme.
Goal Directed Behavior
Behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem.
Object Permenance
Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
A not B Search Error
The error made by 8 to 12 month olds who, after an object has been moved from hiding place A to hiding place B, search for it incorrectly in the first hiding place.
Mental Representations
Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate.
Deferred Imitation
The ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present.
Make-Believe Play
Children act out everyday and imaginary activities.
Violation of Expectation Method
A method in which researchers show babies an expected event (one that follows physical laws) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first that violates physical laws). Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is "surprised" by a deviation from physical reality and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world.
Displaced Reference
Language can refer to things not present in the here and now.
Core Knowledge Perspective
Babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems or core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early rapid development.
Mental Strategies
In information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it efficiently, and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances.
Sensory Register
The part of the information-processing system where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.
Short-Term Memory
Memory that is limited in capacity.
Long- Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Zone of Proximal Development
The range of accomplishments that are beyond what the child can do on her own, but that she can achieve with help or guidance.
Basic Trust Vs Mistrust
Erikson, birth- 18 months, the infant must form a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver or develop a sense of mistrust.
Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt
Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt (2 -3).
Basic Emotions
Emotions such as happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust that are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival.
Social Smile
The smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. First appears between 6 and 10 weeks.
Stranger Anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Secure Base
The familiar caregiver as a point from which the baby explores, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support.
Social Referencing
When a child actively seeks emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.
Self-Conscious Emotions
Emotions that require self-awareness, especially consciousness and a sense of "me"; examples include jealousy, empathy and embarrassment.
Emotional Self-Regulation
Strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.
Temperament
Characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation; Thomas and Chess (1977) devised 3 temperaments.
Easy Child
A child whose temperament is characterized by establishment of regular routines in infancy, general cheerfulness, and easy adaptation to new experiences. (40%)
Difficult Child
A child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and a tendency to react negatively and intensely. (10%)
Slow to Warm up Child
A child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity; mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli; negative mood; and slow adjustment to new experiences. (15%)
Effortful Control
The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
Inhibited or Shy Children
Children react negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli.
Uninhibited or Sociable Children
Children who display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli.
Goodness of Fit Model
It describes how temperment and environment together can produce favorable outcomes; involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperment while encouraging more adaptive functioning.
Attachment
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Ethological Theory of Attachment
It recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view.
Separation Anxiety
A child's fear of being away from parents, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment.
Internal Working Model
A set of beliefs and expectations about how people behave in social relationships, and also guidelines for interpreting others' actions, and habitual responses to make in social settings.
Stranger Situation
(Mary Ainsworth) a laboratory procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parent, designed to assess the quality of infant caregiver attachment between 1 and 2 years of age.
Secure Attachment
These infants use the parent as a secure base; when separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger; when the parent returns they actively seek contact and their crying is reduced immediately.
Avoidant Attachment
The infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present; when she leaves, they usually are not distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as the parent; during reunion, they avoid or are slow to greet the parent, and when picked up, they often fail to cling.
Resistant Attachment
Before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and often fail to explore; when the parent leave, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, sometimes hitting and pushing; many continue to cry after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily.
Disorganized/disoriented Attachment
This pattern reflects the greatest insecurity. At reunion, these infants show confused, contradictory behaviors-for example, looking away while the parent is holding them or approaching the parent with a flat, depressed emotion. Most display a dazed facial expression. A few cry out after having calmed down or display odd, frozen postures.
Attachment Q-Sort
An alternative method suitable for children between 1 and 4 years, depends on home observation; either a parent of a highly trained observer sorts 90 behaviors into 9 categories ranging from highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of the child; then a score, ranging from high to low in security, is computed.
Sensitive Caregiver
Responded promptly consistently and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully.
International Synchrony
It separated the experience of secure from insecure babies. It is best describe as a sensitive tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well times rhythmic appropriate fashion.
Scale Errors
Attempting to do something with a miniature replica object that is much too small for the action to be completed. (trying to get in the toy car that they don't fit in or trying to fit in their doll's clothing).
Empathy
The ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person or respond emotionally in a similar way.
Compliance
They show clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands.
Delay of Gratification
The waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act.
Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere
Handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain to carry out skilled motor action.
Cerebellum
The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
Reticular Formation
A structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness.
Hippocampus
An inner-brain structure which plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way.
Amygdala
A structure that plays a central role in processing emotional information.
Corpus Callosum
A large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemisphere.
Pituitary Gland
Located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.
Growth Hormone (GH)
This is necessary from birth on for development of almost all body tissue.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
It prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size.
Psychosocial Dwarfism
A growth disorder that usually appears between ages 2 and 15. Typical characteristics include decreased GH secretion, very short stature, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems.
Preoperational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Sociodramatic Play
The make-believe play with others that is under way around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years.
Dual Representation
The ability to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
Egocentrism
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Animistic Thinking
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.
Conservation
Refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
Centration
The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects.
Irreversibility
An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Hierarchical Classification
The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.
Private Speech
Children's self-directed speech (instead of egocentric speech).
Intersubjectivity
The process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding.
Scaffolding
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
Guided Participation
A broader concept than scaffolding. it refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.
Planning
Thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal.
Memory Strategies
Deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering.
Episodic Memory
Focuses on your memories for events that happened to you.
Scripts
General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation.
Overlapping Waves Theory
When given challenging problems, children try out various strategies and observe which works best, which works less, and which are ineffective.
Metacognition
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
Emergent Literacy
Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences.
Phonological Awareness
The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language.
Ordinality
order relationships between quantities
Cardinality
last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
Child-centered programs
teachers provide a variety of activities from which children select, and much learning takes place through play
Academic Programs
teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill
Project Head Start
1965, provides children with a year or two of preschool along with nutritional and health services. parent involvement is central to the head start philosophy
Fast Mapping
The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word.
Mutual Exclusivity Bias
the assumption that words pertain to entirely separate categories which do not overlap
Syntactic Bootstrapping
In language development, children's discovery of word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences.
Overregularization
a grammatical error, usually appearing during early language development, in which rules of the language are applied too widely, resulting in incorrect linguistic forms
Semantic Bootstrapping
Young Children rely on semantics, or word meanings, to figure out grammatical rules
Pragmatic
Practical use of language
Recasts
restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form
Expansions
elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity
Initiative versus guilt
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden.
Self concept
the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is. the mental representations of the self has profound implications for children's emotional and social lives influencing their preferences for activities and social partners and their vulnerability to stress
Self-esteem
the judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
Altruistic Behavior
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self (enjoying helping people, like the teaching profession because the salary is not high)
Sympathy
feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight
Nonsocial Activity
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Parallel Play
Children between the age of 1 ½ and 2 play side by side, doing the same or similar things, but not interacting with each other
Associative Play
Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
Cooperative Play
a more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
Social Problem Solving
generating and applying strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements, resulting in outcomes that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self
Induction
in which an adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
Time Out
A form of mild punishment that involves removing children from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately.
Moral Imperatives
which protect people's rights and welfare
Social Conventions
the norms that govern everyday behavior in social situations
Matters of Personal Choice
Concerns that do not involve rights or the welfare of others, and therefore, are up to the individual, such as choice of friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities; distinguished from "moral imperatives" and "social conventions"
Proactive Agression
deliberate agression against another as means of obtaining a desired goal
Reactive Aggression
hostile, is an angry defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
Physical Aggression
A form of aggression that harms others through physical injury to themselves or their property.
Verbal Aggression
A type of hostile aggression that harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing.
Relational Aggression
damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
Gender Typing
refers to any association of objects, activities, roles ,or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
Gender Identity
an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
Androgyny
scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics
Gender Constancy
the understanding that sex is biolically based and remains the same, even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
Gender Schema Theory
an information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
Child Rearing Styles
Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
Authoritative Child-Rearing Style
the most successful approach-involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
Psychological Control
Parental behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expressions, individuality, and attachments to parents
Permissive Child-Rearing Style
warm and accepting but uninvolved. either overindulging or inattentive and thus, engage in little control. they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
Authoritarian Child-Rearing Style
low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
Uninvolved Child-Rearing Style
combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
Secular Trends in Physical Growth
changes in the body size and rate of growth from on generation to the next
Malocclusion
a condition in which the opposing teeth do not mesh normally
Obesity
weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; in an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more
Nocturnal Enuresis
bed wetting during sleep
Rough-and-tumble Play
friendly chasing and play-fighting
Dominance Hierarchy
a stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises
Concrete Operational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Reversibility
the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
Seriation
the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
Transitive Inference
the concrete operational child can also seriate mentally
Cognitive Maps
their mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school
Production Deficiency
preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies. In other words, they fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful.
Control Deficiency
young elementary school children sometimes produce strategies, but the do not consistently.
Utilization Deficiency
slightly later, children execute strategies consistently, but their performance does not improve.
Effective Strategy Use
by the mid-elementary school years, children use strategies consistently, and performance improves
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Rehersal
repeating information to oneself
Organization
grouping related items together
Elaboration
creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
Cognitive self-regulation
the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
Whole-language approach
argues that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning. from the beginning children should be exposed to text in its complete form stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists so that they can appreciate the communicative function of the written language.
Phonics Approach
believing that children should first be coached on phonics - the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds. Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material
Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
Sternberg's theory, which states that intelligent behavior involves balancing analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence to achieve success in life, according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community.
Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Gardner's theory that we have multiple intelligences, each independent of the others; word smarts, number smarts, music, space, body, self, people, and nature smarts
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Stereotype Threat
An evoked fear of being judged in accordance with a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong
Dynamic Assessment
an innovation consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support
Metalingustic Awareness
the ability to think about language as a system
Traditional Classroom
classroom based on the educational philosophy that the teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision-making. (students are relatively passive-listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks. their progress is evaluated by how well they deep up with a uniform set of standards for their grade.)
Constructivist Classroom
encourages students to construct their own knowledge; richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving self-chosen problems, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs; students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior development
Social-Constructivist Classroom
classroom based on Vygotsky's theory, in which children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. (as children acquire knowledge and strategies from working together, they become competent contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development)
Reciprocal Teaching
An approach to teaching based on Vygotsky's theory in which a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative learning group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage, using four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting. Creates a zone of development in which reading comprehension improves.
Communities of Learners
where teachers guide the overall process of learning but no other distinction is made between adult and child contributors: all participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems.
Educational Self-fulfilling prophecies
children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them
Cooperative Learning
Small group learning which has these elements; positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, structured activity, teamwork skills
Inclusive Classroom
students with learning difficulties are placed in regualr classrooms for all or part of the school day, a practice designed to prepare them for participation in society to combat prejudices against individuals with disabilities
Learning Disabilities
disorders found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills such as processing language or grasping mathematical concepts
Gifted
displaying exceptional intellectual strengths
Creativity
the capacity to use information and/or abilities in a new and original way
Divergent Thinking
the generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem (creativity)
Convergent Thinking
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
Industry Versus Inferiority
the psychological conflict of middle childhood which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
Social Comparisons
judgments of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
Mastery-Oriented Attribution
success is attributed to ability and failure is a factor that can be controlled and taken responsibility for
Learned Helplessness
children attribute their failures, not thier successes, to ability; when they succeed, they conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible; unlike thier master-oriented couterparts, they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard
Attribution Retraining
encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort.
Problem-Centered Coping
A strategy for managing emotion in which the individual appraises the situation as changeable, identifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it.
Emotion-Centered Coping
internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome
Perspective Taking
the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling
Peer Groups
groups of people who are similar in age and stage of life
Peer Acceptance
likability, or the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner
Popular Children
Who get many positive vote
Rejected Children
Who get many negative vote
Controversial Children
Who receive many votes both positive and negative
Neglected children
Who are seldom mentioned either positively or negatively
Popular-Prosocial Children
combine academic and social competence
Popular-Antisocial Behavior Children
Includes tough boys athletically skilled but poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority and relationally aggressive boys and girls who enhance their own status by ignoring excluding and spreading rumor about other children
Rejected-Aggressive Children
children who show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior
Reject-Withdrawn Children
Passive and socially awkward
Peer Victimization
A destructive form of peer interaction in which certain children become frequent targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse.
Corregulation
A form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making
Divorce Mediation
A series of meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child custody.
Self-Care Children
children who regularly look after themselves during after-school hours
Phobia
5 percent of school age children have phobias.