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Biodiversity i stole
Terms in this set (30)
three Major Characteristics of An Animal
Multicellular heterotrophs, eat by ingestion, no cell walls,
Differentiation of three germ layers
Ectoderm -> body covering and nerves
Endoderm -> gut
Mesoderm --> muscles, internal organs
2 Ways that we should value biodiversity ?
1. Intrinsic value -> aesthetics (looks) and religion
2. ecological and economical services -> health and productivity of other ecosystems -> source of medicine and other resources for society
Major Threats to biodiversity thanks to Humans
global climate change
improvement of human well being through the management of the environment -> maximize benefits to people and to biodiversity -> human natural systems
ACCEPTS THE PRESENCE OF HUMANS INSTEAD OF PUTTING ASIDE A PORTION OF THE LAND LIKE CONSERVATION BIOLOGY TO SAVE BIODIVERSITY
OUR WELL BEING = CONSERVATION OF OTHER ORGANISMS
scientific study of how to slow the rate of species loss and environment deterioration -> protect nature from the humans that are destroying the biodiversity -> (the major threats card)
Sepulveda Comparison between Cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment to how conservation scientists would deal with invasive aquatic species?
1. Prevention -> estimate the risk of getting cancer in relation to invasive species consequences that are irreversible and unpredictable -> economical way of reducing invasive species spread and humans are most likely to transport aquatic animals so they need to prevent humans from destroying the environments
2. Detection -> when cancer is found, the diagnosis step allows health care providers and patients to choose the best treatment options
Similar to invasive species, aquatic invasive species release DNA into the environment and this extraction makes it easy to identity the new organisms --> molecular techniques
3. Diagnosis -> identify the species' impact on native biodiversity and monitor for any spread and effects of the species because like tumors, some species can be beneficial to the habitat
4. Treatment -> testing to identify habitats whose treatments will be effective
5. Rehab -> efforts to suppress aquatic invasives -> treatments have effects the increase susceptibility to infestation and increase resilience of the invasive -> need to continue to test the place that has been invaded
1. How can scientists use genetic information from a species or population to make important decisions on conservation policy? In what other ways do technological advances in genetics promote or exploit biodiversity?
Scientists use genetic information to make important decisions on conservation policy by seeing how recombinant DNA and biotechnology may benefit species that are becoming endangered.
Microevolution may help scientists figure out the difference in allele frequencies so they can see how species can change -> scientific research can see how different species are created
Advances in genetics exploit biodiversity because of GMO's which introduce a gene into a crop and are then produced in mass amounts -> this technology can lower the biotechnology since some species have more resilience than others
If we lose a few species would it matter?
Yes bc every species has a special niche in an ecosystem and if one is lost then a species niche will be lost and it will not longer serve a purpose.
Also the energy flow and the food web will be disturbed as well especially if its a keystone species like the sea otters where if it is not introduced another species will dominate and cause nutrient overloading to affect the environment --.> need some type of predation !
Endangered species = predators due to the humans -> if the predators are being killed at the top of the food web, the other species below it will end up dominating in the environment and cause the organisms
2. How does phylogenetic information inform our understanding of biodiversity? Should all species be weighted equally in estimates of Earth's biodiversity?
Phylogenetic information can inform our understanding of biodiversity because showing the relationship between species and seeing how certain species that ancestral relate to the current species through different characteristics
It shows how a species had to change in order to fulfill its niche in the ecosystem
All species should not be weighted equally in the estimates of Earth's biodiversity because each species contributes differently to the ecosystem. The PHYLOGENIC SPECIES CONCEPT IS not the only way to value a species because a species can be classified in terms of adaptations and niches and every organisms adapts different making the biodiversity different.
3. Major evolutionary innovation of plants ?
stem, seeds, roots, root hairs and flowers
How the bryophytes turned into ferns then gymnosperms and then angiosperms
3. Major evolutionary innovation of animals
amniotic eggs, feathers, jaws, gills, hair, bladder, limbs, gill slits, true tissues and symmetry and skeletons
Differences Between Prokaryotes, fungi and protists
Prokaryotes --> few to not organelles, bacteria and archea -> live in extreme wearer and single celled
Fungi ->heterotrophic eukaryote that digests food externally, is terrestrial and are underground mosses or mycelia, unicellular or multicellular and have walls of chitin
Protists -> eukaryotes that have no nucleus, organelles, and cytoskeleton, unicellular, colonial, can range in size and both types of reproduction
5. What environmental influences affects affect populations and promotes speciation?
Natural diasters that cause species to move into a different area -> Allopatric speciation (species block gene flow because of isolating barriers)
Change in the environment temperatures due to global warming
Genetic Drift -> bottle neck (natural disaster that results in a small portion of the population to survive and become dominant) and founder effect (a small portion of the environment becomes separated from a bigger portion due to the establishment and results in loss of genetic variation
6. What is biodiveristy?
Biodiversity is the study of individuals (genes), species, and ecosystems and how the species interact with the ecosystem depending on their niche.
Study of genetics and how that develops to changes in the species in order to survive in a changing environment
The number of species of plants, animals and microorganisms and the diversity of genes, ecosystems and species interaction
Is the effect than an organism has on the ecosystem and contains carbon footprint, food footprint and housing footprint -> it shows how much energy you are using in the ecosystem in comparison to how much the sustainable amount would be for earth to support the entire population .
UB -> Mitosis and meiosis Differences
Meiosis is in sex cells and is used for reproductive reasoning and produces more genetic diversity because of crossing over -> results in 4 haploid cells (meaning it contains half the genetic material of the original cell that was divided
Mitosis is in somatic cells or body cells and is used for repair and growth of new cells -> results in 2 diploid cells that are identical
UB gene expression, regulation and manipulation -> what is a gene?
Contains genetic material that codes for a specific protein
UB gene expression, regulation and manipulation --> Process of gene expression
Gene expression occurs in the nucleus and the eukaryotic chromosomes are tightly packed and this is because packing prevents transcription since the RNA polymerase can not get to the DNA to duplicate it
UB gene expression, regulation and manipulation -> what part of the process can expression be enhanced or inhibited ???
Transcription Factors -> proteins that bind to specific regions of DNA and affects transcription of other genes
Promoters and Enhancers
Repressors -> stop any type of transcription of duplication
Enhancer proteins -> activators of RNA polymerase to attach to the DNA and the creation of new proteins
Alternative RNA splicing -> exons are the coding regions that are important and introns don't contain any information so spliceosomes need to cut the non coding regions and the original RNA strand is cut and spliced
--> Regulation of gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus -> mRNA is short lived and depends on the cell and what is being translated
Some proteins require processing -> gene expression analysis -> analysis is when you assess many genes at once
UB What are GMOs and how are they developed and used in biotechnology applications?
When a gene from one species is incorporated into the genome of another species, GMOS are created
1. Isolate gene of interest
2. Develop construct (promoter and marker)
3. Insert gene into vector
4. Isolate gmo and test it
Some examples are for agriculture, food processing, bioremediation --> gold rice (genetically engineered by inserting vitamin A into it)
Effects - positive more agriculture because of pesticides
Negative -> crops carrying genes from other species -> make people allergic not as healthy as regular made food
UB Species Diversity
a. Prokaryotes consists of bacteria and Achaea, few to no organelles, single celled, smaller single chromosome, survive in extreme weather and have a cell wall made up of peptidoglycan which is amino acids and sugar and DNA floats freely around the cell
Eukaryotes → have nucleus, organelles and cytoskeleton, many eukaryotic cells also have cell walls but not made from the same and eukaryotes DNA is held within the nucleus
a. How do scientists believe eukaryotic cells evolved? How do scientists think organelles like chloroplasts and mitochondria developed? What evidence supports their ideas?
Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells and it was the ivagination of the membrane of the prokaryotic cell into the cell and this membrane enclosed around the genome in the middle of the cell and pinched off forming the nucleus and other cells. Mitochondrion and chloroplast are thought to have been free living prokaryotes at one point that were engulfed by other cells. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that both mitochondrion and chloroplasts contain a small amount of DNA inside of them and both of them also have nucleuses making them eukaryotic cells
What are protists, and why are they so important to understanding the phylogeny and evolution of other groups of eukaryotes?
Protists are eukaryotic, diverse in terms of the living conditions and the processes they can carry out: unicellular, multicellular, colonial, usually reproduce asexually but can sexually reproduce in times of stress, and they get their nutrition through being autotrophs, heterotrophs, parasitic, or mixotrophs. They are so important to understanding the phylogeny and evolution of other groups of eukaryotes because
What is Evolution and how does natural selection occur?
a. Evolution is the idea that Earth's many species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from those living today, change throughout time, constant adaptation of species that suit their environment through natural selection and common descent with modification → micro and macro evolution and it is change in genetic frequencies and change on a grand scale respectively
Natural Selection → modification in adaptations which can increase or decrease heritable traits, occurs when favorable traits for a species accumulate for a species→ offspring
What is one example of natural selection occurring nature?
One example is with the Galapagos finches evolving favorable traits in beak size for the different seeds.
Natural selection does not always lead to evolution because it has to happen consistently. Natural selection can diminish heritable traits. There are many things that take part in natural selection.
What is phylogenetic systematics, and why is it important to understanding and organizing biological diversity?
Systematics is an attempt to understand the evolutionary interrelationships of living things, trying to interpret the way in which life has diversified and changed over time → study of the pattern of relationships among tax → evolutionary trees and reconstructs evolutionary history
Why it is important to understand biological diversity?
It is important to understanding and organizing biological diversity because it groups together organisms based on if they shared unique characteristics that came from the groups last common ancestor and that are not present
study of organisms and their interactions with each other and with the environment and how these interactions influence the organisms abundance and distribution.
relationships w/ ind from other species in the community. Intraspecific: within same species interacts, mutualism, commensalism, and predation, herbivory. Coevolution→ species evolving at the same time, interacting with each other.
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