129 terms

Chapter 14 and 15 Educational Psychology


Terms in this set (...)

Expert Teachers
experienced and effective teachers who have developed solutions for classroom problems. They also have elaborate systems of knowledge which are extensive and well organized
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
a teacher's knowledge that combines mastery of the content with knowing how to teach it. It also involves knowing how to match instruction to differing styles of learning
Lesson Study
professional development process that Japanese teachers use to become better teachers
Teachers work together on lessons and develop them, test and retest them until the final product is satisfactory
Lesson Plan
predetermined guide for a lesson. It includes the following:
The goal/objective of the lesson
Necessary materials and equipment required
Instructional strategies and sequence of use
Assessment method(s) planned
Instructional Objective
proposed by Gronlund and Brookhart (2009) these are intended learning outcomes. A clear statement of what students are expected to learn through instruction. It is the proposed outcome of a lesson/unit etc.
Behavioral Objective
instructional objective which is stated in terms of observable and measureable behaviors - such as list, recite, name, calculate etc. Relatively easy to measure. Contains three parts:
Student Behavior
Conditions Under which the Behavior will Occur
Performance Criteria
Cognitive Objective
instructional objective which is stated in terms of higher-level thinking operations - such as appreciate, develop knowledge, create, apply etc. These are more difficult to measure
a classification system. It can be helpful in planning assessments because different procedures are appropriate for different objectives a various levels. Even though all objectives are not necessarily hierarchical - it still may be a useful assessment tool
Cognitive Domain
the first of the three proposed in Bloom's Taxonomy -
educational objective which relate to thinking, acquiring
information, understanding, analyzing, synthesizing etc.
It has 6 objectives:
Higher Level
application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
Lower Level
knowledge and comprehension
Affective Domain
the second of Bloom's domains includes objectives of learning which focus on attitudes and feelings as a result of the learning process. This is refers to the emotional response of learning. It recognizes that learning can evoke feelings and emotions
Receiving/Responding/Valuing/Organization/Value Characterization
Psychomotor Domain
the third domain propsed by Bloom involves physical ability objectives - these are not limited to sports/dance - but can be incorporated into the classroom. Only recently have they been incorporated into every day curriculum. Various Components:
Reflex Movements/Basic Fundamentals /Perceptual Abilities /Physical Abilities /Skilled Movements /Non-discussive Behaviors
Constructivist Perspective/Approach
considered to be a learner-centered approach. It derives its name because of the assumption that learners should build (construct) knowledge for themselves.
Informal Teaching Style
a teaching approach that grants students a relatively high degree of freedom and autonomy. The emphasis is on individual growth and fulfillment rather than academic achievement.
Problem-Based Learning
teaching which implements real-life problem solving (i.e. using the scientific method in science lab to investigate the high incidence of asthma in the community)
Essential Questions
questions that reflect the "heart" of curriculum. Asks the most important things that students should explore and learn (i.e. Instead of "What was the effect of the Civil War" vs. "Is the Civil War still going on"?) Thought provoking...
Guided Discovery Learning
learning in which students are encouraged to construct their understanding with the assistance of teacher-guided questions or directions. The primary role of instruction is provide the learning environment
Direct Instruction/Explicit Teaching (Active Teaching)
a different perspective for instruction which involves a structured teacher-centered approach. It is systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills. Facts and information are emphasized and student interaction is not a primary focus
Formal Teaching Style
an approach to teaching that emphasizes competition, individual work, discipline, order, achievement, and external motivators
Basic Skills
preliminary structural foundations necessary for further education such as reading and math skills.
Advance Organizer
an introductory statement used in direct instruction broad enough to encompass all the information that will follow. The purpose is to direct attention to what is coming, show relationships of what will be presented and bring to mind previously learned material
Scripted Cooperation
through out lecture, students pair off to summarize materials and critique one another's summaries. This requires active learning and participation in an otherwise passive situation
Seat Work
independent classroom work that is done in the classroom. For it to be effective the objectives must be clear. It may not necessarily be the best way to teach. Learning Centers are a suggested alternative
Learning Centers
an in class teaching method offered as an alternative to paper-and-pencil seatwork. The students visit various centers to review concepts and enhance their learning with guided participation
work which must be done outside of the classroom.
Questioning and Recitation
asking students questions as part of teacher instruction. Properly phrased questions can get students to engage in the lecture. Questions can help students rehearse information, but they can also pique curiosity or identify gaps in knowledge.
Convergent Questions
questions with a single correct answer
Divergent Questions
questions with more than one correct answer
Group Discussion
conversation in learning in which students pose and answer their own questions. Teacher does not have to play a large role
Lecturing / Explaining / Demonstrating
a common method of direct instruction - when teacher provides information, give details, clarify, etc. Effective teachers spend more class time explaining than less effective teachers.
Expository Instruction
an approach to instruction in which information is presented in more or less the same form in which students are expected to learn it and be assessed on it - i.e. lab work, dramatization, etc.
Pygmalion Effect
students who excel in the classroom continue to do so because teachers in return put high expectations on them
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a groundless expectation that is confirmed because it has been expected. This effect can be positive or negative
Sustaining Expectation Effect
teachers may accurately know what the student is capable of at a given time, but fail to recognize when they may make improvements
Teacher Competency
explicit, demonstrable knowledge and skills necessary for performing the role of teacher.
Merit Pay
a monetary incentive used to reward teacher competence. It is difficult to decide how to disseminate extra money since there is no universal competency measure for teachers.
a judgment about student performance. It often involves a value assessment deciding the quality of a specific performance and is not always objective i.e. "your attitude toward this class is very negative"
a general term for the process of appraising student performance - may include both measurement and evaluation
evaluation which gauges the quantity of something - i.e. score of 79/100
Norm-Referenced Testing
designed to compare test takers to each other. Scores are compared against the performance results of the others in the group who have taken the test
Criterion-Referenced Testing
a test in which students are judged relative to a pre-established criterion rather than relative to other students.
Standardized Test
a test given under uniform conditions, scored the same way and these scores are reported in an identical manner
Norming Sample
a large sample which serves as a comparison group for scoring standardized tests
Measures of Central Tendency
the typical value of a group of numbers. The three most common are the mean, median and mode
the average of all the scores
the middlemost score of the group
the score which occurs most frequently
Standard Deviation
a measure of how much the scores deviate from the average (mean)
extent of difference in the distribution of scores
distance between the highest and lowest score in a group
Normal Distribution
the most commonly occurring distribution of scores. The tradition "bell-shaped" curve where the majority of scores fall in the middle and fewer scores are at the end points
Percentile Rank Score
another way of reporting scores. It tells the percentage of all who took the test and received a raw score less than or equal to that of that specific student
Grade/Age-Equivalent Score
Score indicating the grade or age level of students to whom a student's performance is most similar. This does not mean a child should be accelerated to this grade level
Standard Scores
score that indicates how far a student's performance is from the mean with respect to standard deviation units
Frequency Distribution
a listing of how many people scored a specific score or within a range of scores
consistency. The extent to which a test provides dependable results. One can rely on the results obtained from the test.
the extent to which a test measures what it claims.
Construct Validity
a construct is a psychological phenomenon including such things as comprehension, motivation, intelligence, creativity etc.
Criterion Validity
the extent to which the test actually does what it claims to do.
Content Validity
assesses whether or not content being tested is similar to the content of what was taught
Test/Assessment Bias (Unfair Penalization, Offensiveness)
if a test design or its results can be interpreted differently or puts certain groups of students at a disadvantage
a situation in which a person is penalized because they are unfamiliar with words or references to something which because of their gender, SES, ethnicity, they have no knowledge
a disadvantage is created when examples or references are made within a test which are offensive to a particular group - these insults may cause the person to perform less well on the test
Culture Fair/Culture Free Test
a test without any cultural bias - this may be virtually impossible to attain
High-Stakes Testing
the practice of using students' performance on a single assessment to make major decisions about students and school personal. This in turn may mean they are used as the basis of hiring, firing teachers, funding sources etc.
an obligation of teachers and schools to accept responsibility for how well students perform on tests.
No Child Left Behind
It implemented new measures to hold schools accountable for their students' progress. This then expanded the role of standardized testing, and required students in grades 3 through 8 be tested every year in reading and math.
Race to the Top
program was signed into law, inviting states to compete for $4.35 billion in extra funding based on the strength of their student test scores
Common Core State Standards
standardized expectations developed by each state to ensure learning. They provide clear and consistent learning goals to help prepare students for their future
Authentic Assessment
assessment of students' knowledge and skills in a "real-life" context
Constructed Response Formats
assessment procedure that require a student to create an answer rather than choosing for a set of choices
Formative Assessment
an evaluation undertaken before and during instruction. It is designed primarily to assist the learner to identify his/her strengths and weaknesses. It is ungraded and used to plan and perhaps diagnose in the classroom
Summative Assessment
an evaluation that occurs after an instructional sequence. It is designed primarily to provide a grade and measure what has been learned in the previous instruction
Objective Tests
tests where scoring does not require interpretation
Multiple Choice Tests
question which consists of a question or incomplete sentence followed by a series of alternatives
the question part of the multiple choice item
the wrong answers offered as choices in a multiple choice test
Matching Tests
assessment that involves generating 2 sets of linked objectives and the student must put them together (i.e. states and their capitals)
True/False Tests
a factual statement requiring the student to judge its truthfulness. They are often used because it does not take long to answer them and they can be graded quickly
Short-Answer/Completion Tests
tests which utilize posing questions which can be answered with a single word, phrase or a few short sentences - be sure not to use too many blanks in one sentence
students must manipulate or synthesize data and develop a solution to a new problem situation
Interpretive Exercises
students are given new material - such as a graph, a table, a map, a paragraph of text, and asked to analyze and draw conclusions from it
Essay Tests
a type of test which requires a student to write a lengthy verbal response. They can only test a limited amount of information and scoring them is very time-consuming and subjective
a collection of student's work compiled systematically over a lengthy period. It can include paper-pencil tests, photographs, papers etc.
a performance test that is public and requires many hours of preparation
Scoring Rubrics
an outline of the criteria for a performance or essay type assessment. It includes specifications for what the task or essay should contain and how varying levels of the performance will be graded
specifications of what is expected of students on an assessment. They are rules used to determine the quality of a student performance
Criterion-Referenced Grading
grades are assigned based on the student's performance on pre-set criteria. Each student's grade is assigned independent of the other students in the class
Norm-Referenced Grading
grades are assigned relative to other students in the class and their relative performance
Grading on the Curve
a specific type of norm-referenced grading. Student grades are compared to the average level and assigned accordingly
Point System
points are earned throughout the semester on tests and assignments. The points earned are divided by the points possible to calculate the percentage
Percentage Grading
grades are determined when teachers calculate percentage scores for various tests and assignments and then these percentages are averaged. The percentage is then converted into a letter grade
Contract System
the requirements for each letter grade are determined in terms of the type of assignments to be completed, their quantity as well as quality. The student "contracts" for a certain grade. A negative aspect is that it may focus on quantities
Halo Effect
people are more likely to perceive positive behaviors in someone they like or admire - the opposite can be true as well. This is to be considered a caution in grading
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
Teachers' Knowledge / Clarity / Explanatory Links / Warmth and Enthusiasm / Expert Teachers / Pedagogical Content Knowledge /
Teachers' Knowledge
an effective teacher possesses knowledge but is also able to convey that knowledge in a usable manner
being clear on what is being taught and presenting it in an organized fashion
Explanatory Links
part of an effective lesson - creates relationships between what is already known and what is currently being presented - Use terms such as because of, in order to...
Warmth and Enthusiasm
"Kids Don't Care How Much You Know Until They Know You Care"

Students will learn better in an atmosphere in which they feel the teacher cares about them and what they learn Enthusiasm can be contagious in a classroom!
Three aspects of classroom climate related to learning in
Teacher emotional support (affective)
Teacher instructional support (cognitive)
Classroom organization (behavioral)
Importance of Planning
Planning influences what students learn
A school year involves multiple levels of planning
Planning can reduce (not eliminate!) uncertainty
Planning is enhanced with collaboration
There is "no one size fits all" in planning
Gronlund and Brookhart's Instructional Objectives
these are intended learning outcomes. A clear statement of what students are expected to learn through instruction. It is the proposed outcome of a lesson/unit etc.
Mager's Instructional Objectives
advocated the use of behavioral objectives as instructional objectives and they must specify what the learner should be able to do after they have received instruction.
Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom 2001)
proposed an educational evaluation system. The purpose was to restructure college and university examinations
3 Domains - Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor
Constructivist Perspective
considered to be a learner-centered approach. It derives its name because of the assumption that learners should build (construct) knowledge for themselves.
In this approach, planning is shared by both the teacher and the student and allows for negotiation. Teachers do not simply pour information into the minds of children, but instead students are encouraged to:
Explore their world
Discover Knowledge
Think Critically
Direct Instruction
a different perspective for instruction which involves a structured teacher-centered approach. It is systematic instruction for mastery of basic skills. Facts and information are emphasized and student interaction is not a primary focus
in contrast to the constructivist approach and is considered a formal teaching style.
Rosenshine's Six Teaching Functions
Review and Check the Previous Day's Work
Present New Material
Provide Guided Practice
Give Feedback and Correctives
Provide Independent Practice
Review Weekly and Monthly
National PTA and the National Education Association (NEA) recommendations for homework
From kindergarten to third grade, no more than 10-20 minutes per day.
It is also suggested that homework during the early years should foster a love of learning and hone study skills.
It is not about the work, but rather to help shape the learning process
From fourth to sixth grade, 20 to 40 minutes/day.
From seventh to twelfth grade, the recommended amount of time varies according to the type and number of subjects a student is taking.
In general, college-bound students receive lengthier and more involved homework than students preparing to enter the workforce immediately after graduation
Hattie and Timperley (2007) Model of Feedback
proposed three feedback questions:
"Where am I going?"
"How am I going?"
"Where to next?"
Research by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1987) - "Oak School" Experiment
Method: Teachers were told they were part of an experiment to determine the effectiveness of a new test designed to predict academic "blooming" or "spurters"
The teachers were told that "Blooming Students" or "Spurters" were identified by the test as children who are likely to suddenly show intellectual spurts.
However, the actual test given was simply an IQ test, and the students were chosen at random
Tests were given in the spring and the following September the teachers were given the erroneous information by "casually" mentioning names of the "spurters"
In actuality, the only distinguishing feature was the expectations created by the casual mentioning of names
Results: Teacher expectations were fulfilled. Students identified as spurters indeed did just that in the classroom - they excelled!
Issue of Teacher Competency
Is it years of experience, student evaluation, peer evaluation, supervisor evaluation ...?
Evaluating a teacher's competencies can be difficult as there is no specific test to adequately measure teacher effectiveness
Potential Misinterpretation of Test Scores
Part of the reason for misunderstanding test results is that numbers have a clear-cut quality to them. As a result, numbers may be interpreted as having more meaning than they actually do and people forget there is a certain amount of bias in all tests.
Even the tests that are well designed can be misused.
Sources of Bias in Testing (Assessment Bias, Unfair Penalization, Offensiveness)
Assessment Bias - if a test design or its results can be interpreted differently or puts certain groups of students at a disadvantage
Unfair Penalization - a situation in which a person is penalized because they are unfamiliar with words or references to something which because of their gender, SES, ethnicity, they have no knowledge
Offensiveness - a disadvantage is created when examples or references are made within a test which are offensive to a particular group - these insults may cause the person to perform less well on the test
Types of Standardized Tests
Achievement Tests, Diagnostic Tests, Scholastic Aptitude Tests, Specific Aptitude Tests
Achievement Tests
tests to assess how much students have learned from what they have been specifically taught
Diagnostic Tests
tests administered to identify special learning problems. They are usually given on an individual basis as warranted
Scholastic Aptitude Tests
test designed to assess general capacity to learn and used to predict future academic success (SAT, ACT etc.)
Specific Aptitude Tests
test designed to predict future ability to succeed in a particular content domain and the predictions of success are limited to that content area
Alternatives to Standardized Testing
Authentic Assessment, Constructed-Response Format
Authentic Assessment
assessment of students' knowledge and skills in a "real-life" context
Constructed-Response Format
assessment procedure that require a student to create an answer rather than choosing for a set of choices
Dempster (1993) theory of "teach them less"
examined research on testing and in particular when and how to test. He offers 3 recommendations:
Test Frequently
Test Soon After Material is Covered
Use Cumulative Questions
He feels that the current curriculum does not allow for frequent testing. His suggestion is to cover less material and cover it more in depth. This would allow more time for learning by permitting time for review, practice, testing and feedback
refers to the current way schools are teaching results in students who are "overstuffed and undernourished."
In various subjects such as science, mathematics, and social studies, students are receiving fleeting exposure to a vast amount of material
He cites as evidence that textbooks in Japan and Singapore are more concise and focus on a few examples, whereas the U.S. texts are laden with more information and detail.
Beliefs About Human Learning
Curriculum decisions appear to be informed by the conviction that "more is better" and that just about anything that "enriches the meaning" of a lesson will assist learning.
Starch & Elliot (1912) study of subjectivity in grading essay tests
They chose 2 English papers and distributed them to 200 high school English teachers. Each was asked to score the paper according to his/her school's standards. A percentage scale was used with 75% as a passing grade
Paper #1 - Scores ranged from 64% - 98% and the average was 88.2
Paper #2 - Scores ranged from 50% - 97% and the average was 80.2
Brimi (2011) Follow up
replicated Starch and Elliot's work. In this experiment 73 high school teachers graded the same student paper. (They were trained to use NWREL's "6+1 Traits of Writing.")
Results: Scores ranged from 50 to 96 (on a 100- point scale)
Conclusions: Starch and Elliot's work was supported
Ways to decrease subjectivity in essay tests
Construct a model answer
Assign point values to aspects of the essay
Put student's names on the back of their papers
When possible ask another teacher for input
Grading improvement
assigning a value to how much a student progresses during a grading period. This can be subjective and may penalize students who consistently do well the entire semester
Grading effort
a subjective assessment of how much a student tries throughout a grading session. This can penalize students who may not need to exert as much effort and maintain good grades.
Grading extra credit
no actual research exists to support or refute the value of extra credit. Often instructors view grades as being the measure of how well the students do in regard to the instructional objectives for the course. Thus assigning one or two students extra work is not a reliable measure of mastery
Pros and Cons of using extra credit
Extra Credit can be an effective tool in the classroom if used in the correct manner. It is important to look at extra credit critically before using it in class

Something to consider is if there are too many opportunities for extra credit it could possibly outweigh the required assignments to the point where a student could pass without meeting all the standards.