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127 terms

Physio Chapter 1 Flashcards

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renal physiology
physiology that concerns kidney function and urine production
neurophysiology
physiology that explains the workings of the nervous system
cardiovascular physiology
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
principle of complementarity of structure and function
what a structure does depends on its form
chemical level
simplest level of structural hierarchy in humans. Atoms form molecules, which form organelles, which form cells.
cellular level
Cells are the smallest units of living things. All cells have some common functions, but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body.
tissue level
tissues are groups of cells that have a common function. The tissue level is there in organisms that are more complex, such as humans.
organ level
at the organ level, extremely complex functions become possible.
organ system
organs work together to accomplish a common purpose.
organismal level
represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life
maintaining boundaries
organisms do this to keep the internal environment distinct from the external environment
responsiveness(irritability)
the ability to sense changes in the
excretion
the process of removing wastes from the body
reproduction
can occur at the cellular or organismal level. In cells, the cell divides and creates a daughter cell. In humans, the sperm and egg unite to form a zygote
growth
the increase of the size of a body part or the organism
nutrients
contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
oxygen
all nutrients in the world are useless without oxygen
water
accounts for 60-80% of body weight and is the single most abundant chemical source in the body
normal body temperature
98.6 degrees F in humans. If the temperature drops too drastically cold or hot, the organism will die.
Atmospheric pressure
the force that air exerts on the surface of the body
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment even though the outside world is changing constantly.
variable
the factor or event being regulated
receptor
some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes(Stimuli)
control center
determines the set point(the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained), analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.
effector
provides the means for the control center's response(output) to the stimulus.
negative feedback mechanisms
the output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
positive feedback mechanisms
the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the activity(output) is accelerated
homeostatic imbalance
a condition where homeostasis is disturbed, often resulting in disease
anatomical position
standard body position where the body is erect with the feet slightly apart. Also called the anatomical reference point.
directional terms
allow us to explain where one body part is in relation to another
axial part
makes up the main axis of our body. It includes the head, neck, and trunk.
appendicular part
consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the axis
sagittal plane
vertical line that divides the body into right and left parts
median plane(midsagittal plane)
a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
parasagittal plane
sagittal plane offset from the midline
frontal planes(coronal plane)
divide the body into anterior and posterior parts.
transverse(horizontal) plane
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
cross section
another term for the transverse plane
oblique sections
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal planes and the vertical planes.
dorsal body cavity
protects the fragile nervous system organs, and it has two subdivisions
cranial cavity
part of the skull that encases the brain
vertebral/spinal cavity
runs within the bony vertebral column. it encloses the delicate spinal cord.
ventral body cavity
as two major subdivisions(thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity). it houses organs collectively called the viscera.
viscera
collective group of visceral organs
thoraric cavity
surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest. divided into pleural cavities and medial mediastinum
pleural cavities
division of the thoraric cavity. each pleural cavity envelops a lung.
medial mediastinum
contains the pericardial cavity
pericardial cavity
encloses the heart, and surrounds the remaining thoraric organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)
abdominopelvic cavity
division of the thoraric cavity. It contains the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
abdominal cavity
superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity that contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs.
pelvic cavity
inferior part of the abdominopelvic cavity that lies in the bony pelvis and contains the bladder, rectum, and some reproductive organs.
serosa/serous membrane
thin, double-layered membrane of the ventral body cavity
parietal serosa
part of the serosa/serous membrane that lines the cavity walls
visceral serosa
the parietal serosa folds itself into this, covering the organs in the cavity
serious fluid
thin layer of lubricating fluid that separates the serous membranes. This fluid fills the cavity between the membranes.
umbilical region
centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus(navel)
epigastric region
located superior to the umbilical region(epi=above, gastri=belly)
hypogastric(pubic) region
located inferior to the pubic region(hypo=below)
right and left iliac/inguinal regions
located lateral to the hypogastric region(iliac=superior part of the hip bone)
right and left lumbar regions
lie lateral to the umbilical regions(lumbus=loin)
right and left hypochondriac regions
flank the epigastric region laterally(chondro=cartilage)
oral and digestive cavities
mouth. it contains the teeth and tongue. it is part of and continuous with the cavity of digestive organs, which opens up to the anus.
nasal cavity
located within the posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respiratory system passageways.
orbital cavities
in the skull. house the eyes and present them in an exterior position
middle ear cavities
carved into the skull and lie just medial to the eardrums. they contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.
synovial cavities
joint cavities. they are enclosed with fibrous capsules that surround freely moveable joints of the body.
superior(cranial)
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
inferior(caudal)
away from the head end or lower part of a structure or the body; below
ventral(anterior)
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
dorsal(posterior)
toward or at the back of the body; behind
medial
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
lateral
away from the midline of the body; at the outer side of
intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal
farther away from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
superficial(external)
toward or at the body surface
deep(internal)
away from the body surface; internal
nasal cavity
nose
oral cavity
mouth
cervical
neck
acromial
point of shoulder
axillary
armpit
abdomainal cavity
cavity inside the abdomen
brachial
arm(upper)
antecubital
front of elbow
antebrachial
forearm
pelvic
pelvis
pollex
thumb
carpal
wrist
palmar
palm
digital
fingers/toes
pubic
genital region
patellar
anterior knee
crural
leg
pedal
foot
tarsal
ankle
frontal
forehead
orbital cavity
cavity that houses the eye sockets
otic
ear
mental
chin
buccal
cheek
sternal
breastbone
thoraric cavity
cavity within the chest
mammary
breast
umbilical
navel
coxal
hip
inguinal
groin
femoral
thigh
fibular, or peroneal
side of leg
hallux
great toe
cephalic
head
upper extremity
upper half of the body, which consists of the arms, chest, and abdominal region
manus
hand
lower extremity
lower half of the body, consisting of the legs, glutes, and feet
occipital
back of the head or base of skull
vertebral cavity
houses the delicate spinal cord
scapular
shoulder blade
dorsum/dorsal
back
olecranal
back of elbow
lumbar
loin
sacral
between hips
gluteal
buttock
perineal
region between the anus and the external genitalia
popliteal
back of knee
sural
calf
calcaneal
heel
plantar
sole