AIPM- Exam 2
Terms in this set (183)
Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) requirements are addressed in what policy document?
What are ESOH requirements intended for?
Prevent ESOH hazards when possible and manage hazards when they cannot be avoided
When are ESOH requirements required?
Use of new or exotic materials or processes
Use of unproven technology
Use of new applications to meet demanding user needs
What are the four general areas that are affected if ESOH is not properly integrated?
Laws and regulations
(1) Procedural or "Future" laws
(2) Substantive or "Past" and "Present" laws
The Office of the Secretary of Defense Review
What Act requires program managers to evaluate the environmental impact of an acquisition program before making major decisions that could affect the environment.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
When should PMs evaluate the impact an acquisition program has on the environment?
Prior to the Milestone A review
Who's the final approval authority for enviornmental issues within an acquisition program?
Component Acquisition Executive (CAE).
What are some methods to analyze and document potential environmental hazards:
Categorical Exclusion (CATEX)
Environmental Assessment (EA)
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
An acquisition policy requirement for all ACAT programs and requires an analysis of: ESOH Compliance; Safety and Occupational Health; Hazardous Materials Management; Pollution Prevention (P2); National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); Executive Order 13101?
Programmatic Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health Evaluation (PESHE)
Directs DoD and other Government agencies to use environmentally responsible products and services ("Greening the Government"); also implements cost-effective procurement preference programs favoring enviornmentally responsible products and services.
Executive Order 13101
Mandates extensive requirements for assuring a safe and healthy work environment for all employees.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements include:
Hazardous Material Management
Pollution Prevention (P2)
Hazardous Material Management entails:
- Eliminating the use of all hazardous material if possible
- Developing and implementing procedures to identify, track, manage and dispose of hazardous materials that cannot be avoided (womb to tomb)
Pollution Prevention (P2) includes:
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Dispose
The Hierarchy of Alternatives for Pollution Prevention is:
Elimination or reduction
Treatment and disposal
Programs with munitions, explosives, or energetics must have an explosive safety program to address the following areas (at a minimum):
Safe release and disposal
Consideration of unexploded ordnance
Insurance of safety of personnel and facilities
Hazard Mitigation Methods:
Eliminate hazards by design and engineering changes
Incorporate safety devices in the system
Provide warning devices
Develop procedures and training
Chartered to promulgate policy and guidance for the safe development, manufacturing, testing, transport, handling, storage, maintenance, demilitarization, and disposal of ordnance/explosives worldwide.
DoD Explosive Safety Board (DDESB)
As part of a program's pollution prevention strategy, the ESOH impacts of a system shall be identified for which aspect of the system's life cycle?
Demilitarization and Disposal
Operations & Support
Does an Explosive Safety Program have to be established when a program uses a type munition?
The primary tool used to aid in a successful Test and Evaluation (T&E) program and documents the overall structure and objectives of the T&E program.
Test & Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP)
When is the TEMP first required?
Prior to Milestone B
When developing a TEMP Army policy requires programs to use what publication when formatting a TEMP?
Is DODI 5000.2 format a rigid template for all programs?
When is the Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP) updated?
It is update as early as possible and constantly throughout the program. (Updated Constantly)
What are the are five key developmental T&E support organizations within the DoD?
Army Materiel Command (AMC) and Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)
Navy Systems Commands (NAVAIR, NAVSEA, SPAWAR)
Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM)
Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC)
Joint Interoperability Test Command (JTIC)
What are the five key operational T&E support organizations within DoD?
Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)
Navy Operational Test and Evaluation Force (OPTEVFOR)
Marine Corps Operational Test and Evaluation Activity (MCOTEA)
Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC)
Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC)
Who sets policy and oversees the Operational and Live-Fire Test and Evaluation?
Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E)
What certification is mandatory for all programs with relevant data exchange capability between services?
Joint Interoperability Certification
Systems are able to exchange information with other systems.
Determine degree to which system performs its mission.
Measures of Effectiveness (MOE)
Determine degree to which system is supportable in its intended environment.
Measures of Suitability (MOS)
Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E) does what?
Measures technical performance against the design specifications.
Is essential in determining a system's readiness for Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E).
Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E)
Indicate operational effectiveness (MOE) and suitability (MOS) and is expressed in the form of a question.
Critical Operational Issues (COIs)
Who generates the Critical Operational Issues (COIs)?
Independent operational test agency such as ATEC (Army Test & Evaluation Command)
Determines operational effectiveness and suitability as defined in the Capability Development Document (CDD) and Capability Production Document (CPD).
Operational Test & Evaluation (OT&E)
Allow attainment of operational performance requirements; help measure performance and ensure system can meet MOEs/MOSs.
Critical Technical Parameters (CTPs)
Under public law (Title 10, US Code 2366), which two types of Live Fire Test and Evaluations are required for certain major systems before full rate production can begin?
Why is testing important?
To ensure systems will perform all the necessary functions and meet all the requirements in the CDD, both in the lab and in its intended environment.
Who is responsible for DT&E?
Who is responsible for OT&E?
Independent Operational Testing Agency (OTA)
Who conducts DT&Es?
Government and Contractor
Who conducts OT&Es?
What type of OT&E is performed on prototypes to help decision makers assess the proposed concepts.?
Early Operational Assessment (EOA)
What type of OT&E is conducted during the SDD (System Development and Demonstration) Phase to assess the system's potential to meet mission requirements. Supports a Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) decision?
Operational Assessment (OA)
What type of OT&E is conducted on production or production representative articles to support a Full Rate Production Decision Review?
Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E)
What type of OT&E is conducted after the system is in production and may continue throughout the lifecycle?
Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation (FOT&E)
What is the maximum number of systems you can purchase during the Low Rate Production?
10 percent (Funded with RDT&E if test only; Procurement funds if tested then fielded )
RDT&E Obligation Period/ Funding Policies:
2 Years/ Incremental
Procurement (Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy Obligation Period/ Funding Policies:
3 years (5 years)/ Full
Operations and Maint. Obligation Period/ Funding Policies:
1 year/ Annual
MILPERS Obligation Period/ Funding Policies:
1 year/ Annual
MILCON Obligation Period/ Funding Policies:
5 years/ Full
What's the primary product that comes from the Planning phase of PPBE; and who manages the phase?
Joint Programming Guidance (JPG); Under Sec Def (Policy)
What's the primary product that comes from the Programming phase of PPBE; and who manages the phase?
Program Obj Memo (POM); Director of CAPE (Cost Analysis and Program Evaluation)
What's the primary product that comes from the Budgeting phase of PPBE; and who manages the phase?
Budget Estimate Submissions (BES); Comptroller (USD)
Provides a strategic framework for developing the Service and DoD Agency program requests.
Joint Programming Guidance (JPG)
Prepared by each Service and defense agency and documents its fiscal requirements based on input from the field and guidance from the JPG.
Program Objectives Memoranda (POM)
Does each Program Office have to prepare input to the Program Objectives Memoranda (POM), based on the requirements of the individual program?
Changes to the Service and agency POMs are documented in ______, which is issued by the Secretary of Defense.
Program Decision Memorandum (PDM)
How does the POM get approved?
Once the PDM is issued
What ends the Program phase of the PPBE.
When the POM gets approved.
Who is the key action officer at the Pentagon regarding budget estimates?
Department of the Army Systems Coordinator (DASC)
How much time do you have after the OSD releases the draft PBD (Program Budget Decision) to prepare and coordinate a reclamas?
Who reviews each reclama and makes final adjustments to BESs (Budget Estimate Submission)?
Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD)
What are the products of the Budgeting phase?
Budget Estimate Submissions (BESs)
Program Budget Decisions (PBDs)
Major Budget Issues (MBIs)
Who makes decision on Major Budget Issues (MBIs)?
Secretary of Defense
When does the President send the annual federal budget to Congress?
The first Monday in February (ends the Budget phase of PPBE)
Funds remain in the "expired account" for how many years after the obligation period ends?
Is an act of Congress that provides "budget authority" and permits Federal agencies to incur obligations and make payments from the U.S. Treasury.
Provides "permission" for a Federal program or activity to begin or continue from year to year.
Set spending ceilings for each major government function; also are not laws (doesn't require President's signature) but are passed by both Houses of Congress.
Who's job is to bring the program in on time and within budget and is accountable to the Milestone Decision Authority for cost, schedule, and performance?
Who should conduct Market Research prior to releasing RFP to verify that there are enough valid contractors to support a competitive process?
Who is responsible for writing the RFP so that it describes the desired end product completely and in measurable unambiguous terms?
Who can negotiate a contract with industry and legally bind the Government contractually?
The contracting officer gets his or her authority from a Certificate of Appointment commonly known as a _________.
Contracting Officer's Warrant.
Low Risk to Government.
Guaranteed delivery by the contractor regardless of cost incurred.
Payments after delivery or performance.
Profit based on contractors internal efficient performance and cost control .
Use of either an Invitation for Bids (IFB) or Request for Proposal (RFP).
Fixed Priced Contracts
High Risk to the Government.
Less well-defined requirements, government pays all allowable cost.
Contractors best effort.
Payment as cost are incurred.
Fee reflects performance risk and compensates the contractors beyond cost. incurred.
Use of Request for Proposal (RFP).
Cost Reimbursement Contracts
Helps the PM manage nine key business management processes.
Earned Value Management (EVM)
What are three generic classifications of DoD software-intensive systems?
Automated Information Systems (AIS)
Command, Control Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I)
Physically integrated into a weapon system.
Program that acquires Information Technology (IT), except IT involving equipment that is an integral part of a weapon or weapon system.
Automated Information Systems (AIS)
A system that communicates, assimilates, coordinates, analyzes, interprets information, and provides decision support to military commanders.
Command, Control Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I)
What software intensive systems are considered National Security Systems (NSS)?
Embedded and C4I
Includes systems engineering, software, and integrated product and process development (IPPD) process areas that must be in place in order to achieve overall program success and to allow assessment of Government and developer process maturity.
Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI)
How many maturity levels are in the CMMI and what are they?
Five: Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively Managed, Optimizing
What are the categories of Technical Data Right?
Government Purpose Rights
Specially Negotiated License Rights
Which Technical Data Right is paid for by the Government?
What are the benefits of Open System Architecture?
Facilitates technology insertion and product modification
Supports evolutionary acquisition strategy
Lower life cycle costs
Who manages the overall cost of the contract?
Contracter, not the PM. PM can encourage the contractor to be an aggressive cost manager.
Cost accounting standards relate to what?
Allocability, not allowability, of costs.
What are the four major categories of indirect costs companies generally use?
Direct Charging Indirect
Other Indirect Costs / Indirect Labor
What are the three categories of costs that cost principles establishes?
Partially unallowable or require special consideration
What are three essential tasks within this cost accounting arena?
Cost determination (what does it cost to produce an item?)
Cost control (what should costs be?)
Performance evaluation (were assets used efficiently)
What are the two main activities in the market research process?
Is the process of gathering and analyzing data in order to determine if products in the commercial marketplace can meet the system performance requirements.
Is more of a continuous process rather than a stand-alone event where a market research team is responsible for continually staying abreast of technological and product developments.
Market Research is a more formalized and focused effort in response to a specific need for a product, service, or material.
Established a standardized format for structuring Government contracts and solicitations.
Uniform Contract Format
When is Market Research mandated?
Before soliciting any offers above the Simplified Acquisition Procedures (SAP)-$150K
What is the goal of Market Research?
Who manages Indirect Cost?
A support strategy the Acquisition Logistician and the designated Product Support Integrator (PSI) collaborate on for the best approach to deliver a specific system readiness rate to the warfighter.
Performance Based Logistics (PBL)
Any previously developed items regardless of the source of development and used exclusively for governmental purposes by federal, state, local, or allied governments (may require minor modifications).
NDIs (Non-Developmental Items)
What is the most predominant testing method used for NDI/ Commercial Items when operating in the intended or "same enviornment?
Operational Testing (OT)
What is the testing method for NDI or Commercial Item when operating in a "different" environment from what it was designed for?
Full range of operational testing including EOA (Early Operational Assessment) and OA (Operational Assessment) will be required to verify both effectiveness and suitability
How do you determine the type of testing for NDI or Commercial Items?
By the way the item will be used.
What are some benefits of NDI/Commercial Items?
Get systems to the user faster by using demonstrated technology
Quick response to operational need
Cycle time reduction
Elimination or reduction of R&D cost
Reduction of technical, cost and schedule risk
What are the Drawbacks of NDI/Commercial Items?
Difficulty in integrating various components
Problems with providing long-term logistics support
Lack of relevant engineering and test data
Is the primary means of assessing weapon system performance
Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E)
What are the three aspects of logistics?
Is a key design feature and that its use is a smart cost-effective way to do business and incorporates non-proprietary interfaces, protocols, industrial standards, interoperable components, and portability.
Open system architecture
What wouldn't be a benefit of Open system architecture?
Proprietary or Sole Source.
What are the two goals of Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability (RMS)?
• Higher operational effectiveness through increased readiness rates and effectively managing the logistics footprint
• Lower ownership costs
Is the probability that an item can perform its intended function for a specified interval under the stated conditions. ("How long will it work?") Example: Mean Time Between Failure
What are the two types of Reliability?
Mission Reliability and Logistics Reliability
Is the measure often item's ability to be retained in or restored to a specified condition when skilled personnel, using the correct procedures and resources perform maintenance. ("How long does it take to repair?") Example: Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)
Is the degree to which a system's design and planned logistics resources support its readiness needs and wartime utilization. Example: Mean Time Between Operational Mission Failure (MTBOMF)
What is the goal of Supportability?
Reducing ownership costs; Increasing readiness rates; Managing the logistics footprint; Reducing dependence on spares; Requiring fewer support personnel.
Is a document that explains the source selection process for a particular acquisition.
Source Selection Plan (SSP)
Who prepares the Source Selection Plan (SSP)?
Contracting Officer and Source Selection IPT
Who approves the Source Selection Plan (SSP)?
Source Selection Authority (SSA) prior to issuing the Request for Proposal (RFP).
Address the broad areas of a contractor's proposal that will be reviewed and assessed by the Government to form the basis for the contract award decision.
Examples of evaluation factors include:
What is the FAR's evaluation factors required when selecting a source?
Price or cost
What does the Tech Management Process consist of?
What are some of the Techinical Management Plans?
Requirements Management plans
Configuration Management plans
Risk Management Plans
Interface Management Plans
Data Management plans
To ensure the proper application of Systems Engineering processes. Its purpose is to establish and maintain technical and technical management plans that direct the technical effort of a program and against which technical progress can be assessed in terms of cost, schedule and risk.
To provide traceability ultimately back to user-defined capabilities and needs. Maintains traceability of all requirements from their origins; documents all changes to them; and records the rationale for changes made to requirements. (Bi-Directional Traceability is one of the most important functions).
To ensure interface definition and compliance among the elements that compose the system; as well as with other systems with which the system or system elements must interoperate. (Encourages Open system - The industry controls it)
To examine the technical risks of deviating from the program plan. A continuous process that is accomplished throughout the life cycle of a system by developing mitigation options; and selecting, planning and implementing the appropriate risk mitigations.
To establish and maintain consistency of a product's attributes with its requirements and product configuration information. (Continuity)
To plan for, acquire, access, manage, protect, and use data of a technical nature to support the total life cycle of the system.
To measure technical progress and the effectiveness of plans and requirements and does NOT include test or analysis.
Key Technical Assessment tools include:
Earned Value Management (EVM),
Technical Performance Measurement (TPM)
To provide the basis for evaluating and selecting technical alternatives when decisions need to be made.
Is based on technical effort events and associated tasks and determines the criteria for knowing when each task will be completed
(includes support tasks, management tasks, resources required, and availability of resources).
Event based Planning
Estimate the time duration it will take to meet the completion criteria for the technical, support and management tasks/events and determines the calendar date that each event can be initiated and completed (ie. network diagrams or Gantt charts).
What are two types of interface requirements?
Boundaries between products within a system model that are controlled by the developer or by the government's technical effort.
Boundaries between a system end product and another external system end product or between a human and the threat environment in which the system products will be used or operated.
What are the three types of decision-making approaches?
Effective decision analysis requires the following:
A clearly defined description of an issue or problem.
Structured evaluation methods and procedures to use in implementing the approach.
Established evaluation criteria.
Is the government's foundation plan for Systems Engineering activities planned for use on a project.
Systems Engineering Plan (SEP)
What is the contractor's foundation to system Engineering?
Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)
Is to develop a schedule from an event-based perspective, but then convert it to a calendar-based schedule by using engineering judgment based on an estimate of the duration needed to achieve the appropriate event-based criteria.
Preferable Scheduling Approach
What are Five Elements of Manufacturing?
What happens in the stable production process?
Allows prediction of the production process outcome
Has the ability to perform multiple functions (commercial and defense) related work within the same production cell. It saves cost.
Single Process Initiative (SPI)
They range from one-of-a-kind, such as space vehicles, to highly standardized (Continuous flow), such as bullets.
What can cause Production Problems?
Unstable Rates and Quantities
Undue Emphasis on Schedule
Inadequate Configuration Management System
Inattention to Environmental Impact
What are System Engineering Manufacturing Tradeoffs?
What are two main principles of lean manufacturing?
Respond to change
Techniques to measure, analyze, and reduce variability; reduces early product failures, improves performance of both components and overall systems, and decreased life-cycle cost.
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
One of a kind items fit under a jumbled flow (eg. wiring for Space Shuttle), where specialized material and flexible methods are required. On the opposite end of the spectrum, high volumes of products require a continuous flow continuous flow (eg. tires for F-150), where interchangeable parts and standardization of assemblies are required.
In 1997 Congress designated the combination of ITMRA and FARA; governs the acquisition of software-intensive systems within the Federal Government.
Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1997
Ensure that DoD has qualified personnel to manage the acquisition of defense systems and establish standards for Education, Training, and Experience.
Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) of 1990
Minimize cost to the Government- through creation, collection, maintenance, use dissemination and disposition of information.
Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995
States that executive branch agencies must conduct strategic planning and performance measurement. Act passed to improve Federal management; Congressional decision making; Service delivery; Program effectiveness; Public accountability
Public confidence in government.
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993
What are the Defense Acquisition System Publications?
5000 Series; additional policies are contained in the 8000 series
Activities help protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation.
Information Assurance (IA)
The ability of systems, units or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces, and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together."
Overarching goals of enterprise architecture are to:
Manage the complexity of the enterprise.
Align business strategies and implementations.
Facilitate change in order to maintain competitive advantages.
What are the 4 major perspectives, or views, combine to describe architecture framework?
Technical standard architecture (TV)
All View (AV)
Is a key that supports the DoD's Information Superiority goals and it's used for Joint Interoperability and assessed by the MDA.
Net- Ready Key Performance Parameter (NR-KPP)
Created to ensure consistent description of architectures, to facilitate communications, to be modular, reusable and decomposable. It uses uniform terms and definitions and describes interoperability requirements in consistent way.
DoD Architecture Framework
What are two types of products within the DoD Architecture Framework?
The minimal set of products required to develop architectures that can be commonly understood and integrated within and across DoD organizational boundaries.
Additional data that may be needed depending on the purpose and objectives of a specific architecture.
Provides communications facilities and a set of robust enterprise services across the DoD and is DoD's vision for meeting the challenge (globally connected).
(GIG) Global Information Grid
Programs must be "GIG compliant" and their compliance is an item for which review?
Milestone Decision Review
Architecture is one that uses open specifications to define interfaces, services and supporting formats. Allows applications to be more easily used on different platforms and promotes interoperability, allowing systems to interact with users in a consistent way.
Open Systems (OS)
Groups of related systems sharing a set of common capabilities.
Because similar domains require similar architectures, a key precondition for the development of a robust architecture is the use of ___________.
Are GIGs required for all systems?
An integrated Gov-Contractor style of negotiation that relies on a team approach to come to an agreement?
What programs are incorporated to foster achievement of National Goals?
What is the size or amount of support assets required to adequately sustain a system at a specific readiness rate for a specified period of time when the system is deployed for its intended operational (wartime) environment?
What does the Structured Source Selection Plan ensure exists for awarding government contracts?
What act develop the Cost Analysis and Program Evaluation (CAPE) and provides policies and procedures for conduct all DoD cost estimates?
Weapons Systems Acquisition Reform Act (WSARA) of 2009
What can cause a Source Selection to be released outside the government?