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Chapter 18 Vocabulary words

For the students in Mr. B's Biology 210, Fall Semester.
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Mineralocorticoid
Steroid hormone (e.g., Aldosterone) produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex; facilitates exchange of potassium for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potassium and hydrogen ion secretion.
Pancreatic islet
Islets of Langerhans; cellular mass varying from a few to hundreds of cells lying in the interstitial tissue of the pancreas; composed of different cell types that make up the pancreas and are the source of insulin and glucagon.
Pituitary Gland
Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See hypophysis.
Androstenedione
Androgenic steroid of weaker potency than testosterone; secreted by the testis, ovary, and adrenal cortex.
Prolactin-Inhibiting hormone
Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that inhibits prolactin release from the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary).
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; increases melanin production by melanocytes, making the skin darker in color.
Prostaglandin
Class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues; among effects are those of vasodilation, stimulation and contraction of uterine smooth muscle, and promotion of inflammation and pain.
Thromboxane
Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid derivatives present in many tissues.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Glycoprotein hormone released from the hypothalamus; stimulates thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland.
Triiodothyronine
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones.
Vasopressin
Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis that causes vasoconstriction and acts on the kidney to reduce urinary volume; also called antidiuretic hormone.
Zona Fasciculata
Middle layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes cortisol.
Leukotriene
Specific class of physiologically active fatty acid dereivatives present in many tissues.
Pancreas
Abdominal gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the intestine and insulin and glucagon from the pancreatic islets into the bloodstream.
Melatonin
Hormone (amino acid derivative) secreted by the pineal body; inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus.
Gluconeogenesis
Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as proteins (amino acids) or lipids (glycerol).
Parafollocular cell
Endocrine cell scattered throughout the thyroid gland; secretes the hormone calcitonin.
Anterior pituitary
Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm. See adenohypophysis.
Prolactin-releasing hormone
Neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates prolactin release from the adenohypophysis.
Growth Hormone
Somatotropin; stimulates general growth of the individual; stimulates cellular amino acid uptake and protein synthesis.
Thymus gland
Bilobed lymph organ located in the inferior neck and superior mediatinum; secretes the hormoe thyosin.
lipotropin
One of the peptide hormones released from the adenohypophysis; increases lipolysis in fat cells.
Adenohypophysis
Portion of the hypophysis derived from the oral ectoderm; commonly called the anterior pituitary.
Gonad
Organ that produces sex cells; testis of a male or ovary of a female.
Adenocorticotropic hormone
Hormone of the adenohypophysis that governs the nutrition and growth of the adrenal cortex, stimulates it to functional activity, and causes it to secrete cortisol.
Parathyroid hormone
Peptide hormone produced by the parathyroid gland; increases bone breakdown and blood calcium levels.
Tetraiodothyronine
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones; also called throxine or T4.
Isthmus
Constriction connecting two larger parts of an organ, such as the constriction between the body and the cervix of the uterus, or the portion of the uterine tube between the ampulla and the uterus.
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland located inferior to the larynx and consisting of two lobes connected by the isthmus; secretes the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and Tetraiodothyronine (T4).
Parathyroid gland
One of four glandular masses imbedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; secretes parathyroid hormone.
Thyroxine
One of the iodine-containing thyroid hormones. See tetraiodothyronine.
Zona Glomerulosa
Outer layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes aldosterone.
Zona reticularis
Inner layer of the adrenal cortex that secretes androgens and estrogens.
Hypophysis
Endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum. also called the pituitary gland. See Pituitary Gland.
Thyrotropin
See thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Somatomedin
Peptide synthesized in the liver capable lof stimulating certain anabolic processes in bone and cartilage such as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein.
somatotropin
Protein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland; it promotes body growth, fat mobilization, and inhibition of glucose utilization.
Cortisol
Steroid hormone released by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.
Enkephalin
Pntapeptide found in the brain; binds to specific receptor sites, some of ehich may be pain-related opiate receptors.
Hypothalamohypophyseal portal system
Series of blood vessels that carry bloos from the area of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland; originate from capillary beds in the hypothalamus and terminate as a capillary bed in the anterior pituitary gland.
FSH
See follicle-stimulating hormone.
Luteinizing Hormone-releasing hormone
See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Hormone of the adenohypophysis that, in females, stimulates the graafian flooicles of the ovary and assists in follocular maturation and the secretion of estrogen; in males, FSH stimulates the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and is partially responsible for inducing spermatogenesis.
Osmoreceptor cell
Receptor in the entral nervous system that responds to chandes in the osmotic pressure of the blood.
Adrenal gland
Also called the suprarenal gland. Located near the superior pole of each kidney, it is composed of a cortex and a medulla. The adrenal medulla is a highly modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine; the cortex secretes aldosterone and cortisol as its major secretory products.
Aldosterone
Steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that facilitates potassium exchange for sodium in the distal renal tubule, causing sodium reabsorption and potasium and hydrogen secretion.
Glucocorticoid
Steroid hormonw (e.g., cortisol) released by zonula fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose and inhibits inflammation.
Antidiuretic hormone
Hormone secreted from the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) that acts to reduces the output of urine; also called vasopressin because ir causes vasoconstriction.
Gonadotropin
Hormone capable of promoting gonadal growth and function. Two major gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follocle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
Corticotropin releasing hormone
Hormone from the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Hypothalamic-releasing hormone that stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) from the adenohypophysis.
Hypothalamohypophyseal tract
Nerve tract, consisting of the axons of neurosecretory cells, extending from the hypothalamus into the posterior pituitary gland. Hormones produced in the neurosecretory cell bodies in the hypothalamus are transported through the hypothalamohypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary gland where they are stored for later release.
Luteinizing hormone
In females, hormones stimulating the final maturation of the follicles and the secretion of progesterone by them, with their rupture releasing the ovum, and the conversion of the ruptured follicle into the corpus luteum; in males, stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the testes.