159 terms

Advanced Placement United States History 1st semester

These flashcards currently cover material in Chapters 1-6 in Brinkley. Eventually, all terms from the text will be included in this flashcard set.
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Pueblo Revolt
In 1660s and 1670s Spanish priests and colonial gov, tried to suppress Tribal rituals. Appache raids on food and severe drought helped cause the revolt. Spanish lost. Twelve years later, return...crushed last revolt in 1696. because of this Spanish tolerate of Indians religious practices, allowed Indians to own land, and baptized Indian children at birth
Pope
lead Pueblo Revolt
Mercantilism
Assumption:the nation as a whole, not the individual within it, was the principal actor in the economy. The goal of economic activity should be to increase the nation's total wealth. A nation's economic healed depended, therefore on extracting as much wealth as possible from foreign lands and exporting as little wealth as possible from home.
Puritans
Most ardent Protestants. Wanted to purify church. City on the Hill. Fleeing England to achieve religious liberty.
Separatists
Radical Puritans. Wanted to worship as they pleased in own independent congregations. Radical views of women (thought women could have prominent role such as preacher in their religion)
Jamestown
1607, first permanent English settlement, Virginia, John Smith, tobacco, cash crop, starving time
Headright System
50 acre land grants. People in colony get 100 acres apiece, Each new settler get 50.
VA House of Burgesses
first meeting of an elected legislature within US. 1619
Powhatan Indians
original tribes in the area surrounding Jamestown, gave the settlers food, taught them the ways of the forests and introduced new crops (corn and yams), constantly warring with the settlers
Maryland
Retreat for Catholics. Tension between Catholics and Protestants
Proprietary Rule
Absolute rulers of Land. Only needed to pay crown annual fee.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Mayflower Compact
Established a civil government loyal to the King.
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
John Winthrop
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Roger Williams
Seperatist. Complete separation of church and state. Colony should break allegiance with Church of England. Founded Rhode Island. ALLOWED FOR RELIGIOUS LIBERTY.
Anne Hutchinson
Clergy members who are not among the elect had not right to spiritual office. Wanted larger roles for women in society. Get kicked out, believes she is direct conduit with God.
Pequot War
War a result of competition over trade with Dutch. Mohegan and Narragansett Indians allied with English. Pequot Indian almost wiped out.
King Philip's War
Metacomet (AKA King Philip), was iratted that the colonists were trying to impose their own laws on his tribe (the Wampanoag). War...Philip loses. In New England.
Mystic River
15,000 puritans eventually competing for Indian resources. Puritans killed all Pequot in 1637. about 500 total.
Fundamental Constitution for Carolina
elaborate system of land distribution and al elaborately designed social order. Written by John Locke, failed.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Navigation Acts
1. Colonies only trade with Eng
2. All ships must go through England so that the can be taxed
3. Made custom officers
Sir Edmund Adros
Ruler of Dominion of New England
Slave Codes
limiting rights of blacks in law and ensuring absolute authority to white masters
Triangle Trade
Rum to Africa. Africans to West Indies. Sugar, Molases, and Slaves to Mainland Colonies. Repeat
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Jonathan Edwards
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" portrayed sinful man as a "loathsome insect suspended over a bottomless pit of eternal fire by a slender threat that might break at any moment
Peace of Paris
This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763)- a war between England, France, and their Native American allies for control of North America. The English won the war and gained large area of North American from the French.
George Greenville
Thought colonists to long indulged. Did the following laws:
1. Proclamation of 1763-NO WEST EXPANSION
2. Sugar Act of 1764-Strengthened taxes on sugar. Established British courts in America to try smugglers
3. Currency Act of 1764-Stop issuing paper money...retire money already in circulation
4. Stamp Act of 1765-imposed a tax on most printed documents in the colonists
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is a short document, but contains some principles that were later applied in creating the United States government. Government is based in the rights of an individual, and the orders spell out some of those rights, as well as how they are ensured by the government. It provides that all free men share in electing their magistrates, and uses secret, paper ballots. It states the powers of the government, and some limits within which that power is exercised.
Sugar Act of 1764
A tax on molasses imported from the West Indies...it lowered the tax on molasses but incresed government authority to crack down on smuggling
Stamp Act of 1765
1765) a law passed by Parliament that raised tax money by requiring colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they bought paper items such as newspapers, licenses, and legal documents
Virginia Resolutions
1. Americans had same rights as English
2. Taxed by own representatives
3. Virginians should pay no taxes except those voted on by Virginians
4. Anyone saying Parliament could tax VA was enemy of state
Declaratory Act
(1766) Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. Parliament emphasized its authority to make binding laws on the American colonies.
Townshend
passed by Parliament in 1767, placed taxes on imported materials such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Led to outrage and tons of people boycotted British goods.
Committee of Correspondence
A group set up in each of the colonies to quickly share information about taxes and other issues by writing letters to groups in the other colonies.
Tea Act
Britian's East India Company monopoly of tea industry...did not need to pay navigation acts
Coercive Acts
1. port act closed the port of boston until the tea was paid for. 2. MA Gov't act reduced the power of the MA legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor. 3. Allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England instead of the colonies. 4. expanded the quartering act to enable british troops to be quartered in private homes--applied to all colonies.
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Land Ordinance of 1785
-A red letter law by congress which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income; promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land
Northwest Ordinance or 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Virginia Plan
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states; its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, the establishment of the acts of Congress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a supreme judiciary with limited power.
The Great Compromise
States would be represented in the lower house on basis of population. Upper house has two members per state.
3/5 compromise
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Federalists
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Anti Federalists
Argued that feds would increase taxes, destroy states rights, wield dictoral power, Constitution had no bill of rights, and put an end to individual rights
Bill of Rights
Freedom of Religion, Speech, and the press, immunity from arbitrary arrest, trial by jury, and others
Pilgrims
Sepertatists. Wanted to have nothing to do with Church of England. Moved to Holland then to US.
Salutary Neglect
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
Stamp Act Congress
1765 Organization of colonies that protested taxes
Boston Massacre
..., 1770, street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
Boston Tea Party
..., A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
Shay's Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Hamilton's Report on Industry
1. Assume state and individual Debt
2. Create Bank
3. Create new source of revenue through taxation
Put protective tariff on manufactures
Excessive test, Hamilton outlined a Report in 1791 that praised efficient factories with many workers. Hamilton firmly believed in industrializing to create jobs, improve technology, and promote emigration. In opposition, Jefferson believed in the landowning family farmers.
Hamilton Report on Manufactures
as outlined in his Report, Hamilton admired efficiently run factories in which a few managers supervised large numbers of workers. Manufacturing would provide employment, promote emigration, and expand the applications of technology.
XYZ Affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
The Second Great Awakening
a series of American religious revivals occurring throughout that eastern U.S.; these revivals encouraged a culture performing good deeds in exchange for salvation, and therefore became responsible for an upswing in prison reform, the temperance cause, the feminist movement, and abolitionism
Goals of the Second Great Awakening
1. Must accept God and reject rationalism
2. The Great Awakening in Short combined a more active piety with a belief in God as an active force in the world whose grace could be attained through faith and good works
Louisana Purchase
treaty between the USA and France where the US bought territory that stretched from the west bank of the MIssissippi River to the Rocky Mountains
Embargo Act
prohibited any American ship to leave the U.S. to any foreign port...caused a big depression, 1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. Really, however, just hurt Americans and our economy and got repealed in 1809.
Non Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Jefferson Democracy
Agrarian Republic
Big<Small
Land owning Farmers
Strong States Rights Views
Andrew Jackson
Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
McCulloch Vs. Maryland
The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank.
Marbury Vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
Dartmouth College was granted a charter by King George, but New Hampshire wanted to change the terms of the charter. Supreme Court ruled that contract must be upheld, which stated that states did not have the power to interfere with private contracts.
War of 1812
Causes: Brits Impressment on the Seas, Maintained troops on US Shore...
Result: Won Naval Engagement...Burned White...Dissulsion of Federalist Party House...Treaty of Ghent
American System
An economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Missouri Compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Tarriff of Abomination
Protective tariff designed to protect industry in the northern United States. May 19, 1828, It was called that by south, they thought tat it was ruinign their economy It raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's right
Nullification Crisis
..., 1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
Worcester vs. Georgia
1832 The court banned Georgia's extension of state law into Cherokee land. Jackson ignored the decision.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Emerged because ppl thought Jackson was King...formation of whig party, 1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Cult of Domesticity
Elite women participant of cult of domesticity...belief that they had to cultivate the home...specific virtues that men do not have that make them more successful in the home life, idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
Republican Motherhood
..., An idea linked to republicanism that elevated the role of women. It gave them the prestigious role as the special keepers of the nation's conscience. Educational opportunities for women expanded due to this. Its roots were from the idea that a citizen should be to his country as a mother is to her child.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Transcendentlism
a philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination.
Manifest Destiny
Go West...West frontier you can make yourself new...Associated with Polk
Mexican War
War declared by U.S. against Mexico over unpaid claims, "American blood on American soil," and the Slidell Affair.
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected
Compromise of 1850
by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Popular Sovereignty
Individuals in the state can determine whether or not the state is free or not
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Wrote book, Uncle Tom's Cabin... attack on Slavery
Bleeding Kansas
a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
John Brown
Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Border States
Five slave states-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia-that did not secede during the Civil War. To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
Reconstruction Amendments
13. Free Slaves
14. Equal Protection
15. Voting Rights
Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction
10% of voters from the last election had to pledge to support the union. Pardon all Confederates except high-ranking officials and those who were cruel to POW's
Black Codes
Codes to deprive African Americans rights
Wade-Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Radical Reconstruction
1867, removed governments in states not ratifying 14th Amendment, made 5 military districts, state must write a new constitution, ratify 14th Amendment, and allow African Americans to vote
Freedman's Bureau
..., 1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Carpetbagging
Term given to a politician who moves to another legislative district in order to run for public office e.g. hillary clinton
scalawag
Caused North to Pull out of South...caused what little support for blacks rights to dissipate, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Slaughter House Cases
distinguished between the privileges of US citizens and those of state citizens; the only privileges of national citizenship are those owed to the existence of the Federal Government, its National Character, its Constitution, or its laws; eg: reight to use navigable water of the US, protection on the high seas, assemple peacefully, petition for redress of grievances, right to vote if qualified to do so under state laws, travel through out US
Plessy Vs. Ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
Jim Crow
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Booker T Washington
accept what you got in life and make it the best
Civil Rights Cases
1883 - These state supreme court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the federal and state governments, not to individuals or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
civil body politic
a group of people joined together for the common welfare of people or the community - Plymouth
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts - Jamestown
Patrick Henry
A leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies.
Molly Pitcher
A nickname of a woman, or an image representing a group of women, who was said to have fought in the Battle of Monmouth, an American Revolutionary War fought in New Jersey
Remember the Ladies
In a letter written by Abigail Adams to John Adams in 1776, Abigail was asking Adams to make laws that would offer rights for women, not only men, protecting them against abusive and tyrannical men.
Judith Sargent Murray
Female rights activist following the revolution who argued that the brain is not a sex organ. She wrote "On the Equality of Sexes".
George Washington
was the first president of the u.s. and had led American troops to victory in the Revolution War
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
strict construction
A judicial philosophy that looks to the "letter of the law" when interpreting the Constitution or a particular statute.
loose construction
A way of interpreting the Constitution which holds that the words in the Constitution can be stretched or expanded upon. This method of interpreting the Constitution would usually lead to an expansion of both federal government power and individual rights.
2nd Continental Congress
1)Sent the "Olive Branch Petition" 2)Created a continental army with George Washington as the leader. 3)Agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.
Richard Henry Lee
A member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
2nd Treatise on Government
Written by Locke in 1690 that stated government must be both responsible for and responsive to the concerns of the governed.
social contract
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
Montesquieu
wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government (checks and balances)
equal protection clause
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination
due process clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Gettysburg Address
a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Personal Liberty Laws
Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
allowed government officials to arrest any person accused of being a runaway slave; all that was needed to take away someone's freedoms was word of a white person; northerners required to help capture runaways if requested, suspects had no right to trial
2nd Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans
Cane Ridge
- Where a large gathering of Protestants gathered and preached. 10,000 men, women, children, white and black went to Cane Ridge to hear dozens of ministers preaching the gospel. Second great awakening
Burned over district
A term that refers religious revivals to western New York. Puritan sermonizers were preaching &quot;hell-fire and damnation." The Mormon religion was established by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have had a revelation from angel and they faced much persecution from the people and were eventually forced to move west. (Salt Lake City) After the difficult journey they greatly improved their land through wise forms of irrigation. The establishment and persecution of the Mormon religion revisited old themes that were around from the original colonists. The Mormons migration westward brought new prosperity to the unpopulated west and has become a prominent part in American society today.
Horace Mann
, late 1830s, MA, United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Dorthea Dix
tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
WCTU
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
Transcendentalists
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Massachusetts 54th
a black regiment led by white officers, it earned honor and respects for its black soldiers by continuing to fight after suffering heavy losses
spot resolution
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
gag rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
slave power
term used by antislavery advocates to describe conspiracy of southern politicians and northern business owners. Planned to expand the bounds of slavery into new territory
Ostend Manifesto
(FP) 1854, a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S., found out, Pierce repudiated
Lincoln Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
George Fitzhugh
A social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that "the Negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. He went as far as to say that black slaves were in a much better situation than poor, freed blacks
Nat Turner
American slave leader, he claimed that divine inspiration had led him to end the slavery system. Called Nat Turner's Rebellion, the slave revolt was the most violent one in U.S. history; he was tried, convicted, and executed.
Whiskey Rebellion
, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Gabriel Prosser
in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin, along with 35 others he was executed.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Powhatan
An Indian chieftain who dominated the peoples in the James River area. All the tribes loosely under his control came to be called Powhatan's confederacy. The colonists inaccurately called all of the Indians Powhatans.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Antinomians
Winthrops definition: people who believed that Christian could be saved by faith alone and did not need to act in accordance with God's law as set forth in the Bible and interpreted by the colony's leaders. Hutchinson & followers.
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