Carr Ch. 2

This approach refers to the process by which scientists draw a general understanding of some social phenomenon through specific empirical observations
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Terms in this set (31)
The process of precisely defining ideas and turning them into variablesconceptualizationThe process of linking the conceptualized variables to a set of procedures for measuring themoperationalizationIn a causal hypothesis, the concept purported to be the causeindependent variableIn a causal hypothesis, the variable that is acted upon; the outcome we are seeking to understanddependent variableWhen an apparent relation between two concepts is actually the result of some third concept (confound) influencing both of themspuriousnessIn spuriousness, the relation between two concepts is complicated by a ________, or a third variable that is linked to two concepts in a way that makes them appear to be related even when they are notconfoundRepresentations that capture the different dimensions, categories, or levels of a conceptvariablesAn idea that can be named, defined, and eventually measured in some wayconceptThe variable that links the independent variable to the dependent variablemediating variableIn ________, the expected relation between two concepts is channeled through a third concept that links them togethermediationIn ________, the strength of the relationship between two variables is conditioned (made weaker or stronger) by a third variablemoderationA hypothesis has ________ ________ if the independent variable truly has an effect upon the dependent variablecausal validityA claim of causal validity requires demonstrating that 3 criteria have been met:association, time order, non-spuriousnessCausal validity: in ________, one variable changes systematically as the other variable changesassociationCausal validity: if there is no association in the data, then there cannot be a _______ relationship, even if many people believe there iscausalCausal validity: in _______ ________, the hypothesized cause must be temporally prior to the hypothesized outcometime orderCausal validity: a _________ relationship is an apparent causal relationship, but in reality, the two variables are affected by a common causespuriousCausal validity: one example of spuriousness is the ________ ________ theory, in which a neighborhood's level of community, not minor crimes, affects signs of disorder and major crimesbroken windowsCausal validity: only a true experiment can conclusively prove that a relationship is ____________ (or statistically controlling for third variables)non-spuriousIn a ________ relation, when the independent goes up, the dependent goes uppositiveIn a _________ relation, when the independent goes down, the dependent goes downnegative