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49 terms

Radiology Physics Chapter 3 & 4

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atom
greek - substances - earth, air, fire, water
- essences - wet, dry, hot, cold
bonding
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isobar
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isotope
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isomere
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human body is composed of what 4 elements
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ionizing radiation
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period
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group
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who invented the periodic table
mendeleev
einstein's equation of relativity
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atomic mass unit
one atomic mass unity is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic mass
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atomic mass number
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carbon-12
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alpha particles
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beta particles
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radioisotopes
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amn of a proton
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amn of a neutron
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amn of an electron
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what is amu based on
c12
atom after emissions (alpha and beta)
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what is half life
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principle quantum number
2n^2
outer shell max
8
does radiation ever reach zero
no
nuclear stability
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xrays vs gamma rays
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centripital force
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symbol for atomic number
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bohr
1913, improved rutherfords description of the atom, a miniature solar system in which the electrons revolved about the nucleus in prescribed orbits or energy levels.
einstein
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thompson
late 1890's he described the atom as looking something like a plum pudding, where the plums represented negative electric charges (electrons) and the pudding was a shapeless mass of uniform positive electrification.
rutherford
1911 - disproved thomson's model of the atom, introduced the nuclear model, which described the atom as containing a small, dense, positively charged center surrounded by a negative cloud of electrons. he called the center of the atom the nucleus
dalton
1808 - school teacher - elements could be classified according to integral values of atomic mass
an element was composed of identical atoms that reacted the same way, chemically
smallest atom
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wavelength of red
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wavelength of violet
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rf measured in
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xrays measured in
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visible light measured in
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amplitute
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mendeleev
showed elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, a periodic repetition of similar chemical properties occurred
what are the fundamental particles of an atom
electron, proton, neutron
what is an atom?
the smallest particle that has all the properties of an element

essentially empty space
what is the mass of a proton? neutron? electron?
proton - 1.673 x 10^-27 kg
neutron 1.675 x 10^-27 kg (slightly heavier)
electron 9.1 x 10^-31 kg
in their normal state, what is the charge of an atom
neutral
what is ionization
the removal of an orbital electron from an atom