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367 test 2
Terms in this set (145)
_____ involves using programs to search social networking sites to try to match sentences or phrases to consumer feelings.
Regulatory focus theory puts forward the notion that _____.
consumers orient their behavior either through a prevention focus or promotion focus
Which of the following theories describes consumers as addressing a finite set of prioritized requirements?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, the most basic needs are the _____.
Which of the following drives consumers to acquire products that they can use to accomplish things?
When consumers are highly involved, there is a greater chance of _____.
achieving relatively high value
Emotions create _____, meaning that certain feeling states coincide with certain behaviors in a very direct way.
In the context of cognitive appraisal theory, an _____ reviews responsibility for events and can evoke consequential emotions like gratefulness, frustration, guilt, or sadness.
Which of the following is true about consumer moods?
A consumer's mood can serve as a type of frame that can transfer into product value judgments.
The term _____ refers to the general feelings a consumer has about a particular product or activity expressed as tone or liking.
In the context of measuring emotion, autonomic emotion measures _____.
can record neurological brain activity
_____ is a self-report measure that asks respondents to rate feelings using semantic differential items.
In the context of measuring emotion, _____ is a situation wherein if one feels joyful, he or she cannot also experience sadness.
_____ increases when a consumer receives something extra with products purchased.
A(n) _____ refers to an extremely high emotional involvement in which a consumer is engrossed in an activity.
state of flow
Which of the following statements is true about high emotional intelligence (EI)?
Consumers with high EI exhibit better self-control.
_____ refers to relatively superior recall for information presented with mild affective content compared to similar information presented in an affectively neutral way.
Emotional effect on memory
_____ refers to emotions that become stored as part of the meaning for a category.
_____ is the effort put forth by employees in carefully managing their appearance as a requisite for performing their job well.
Which of the following best describes consumers who are experiencing self-conscious emotions?
If they mistreat a service provider, they may recommend the service provider to others as a way to counterbalance their behaviors
Ashley has been collecting vintage silverware for a decade. She is an active member of many silverware collectors' forums, and in search of unique pieces, she regularly attends estate sales held across various states. In the given scenario, Ashley exhibits what type of involvement?
Chas is head of the marketing research department and is evaluating a set of possible advertising campaigns the product manager is considering. Part of the assessment is to determine how respondents self-report the extent to which they feel about many emotional adjectives (e.g., happy, sad, fearful, excited, and others). Chas is employing what approach in this scenario?
Tanisha felt thirsty and hot after a long walk on the beach on a sunny day. She got a lemonade to cool herself. This is an example of _____.
Rosa has been training for a half-marathon for more than six months. She has improved her time and overall confidence in the past month and is looking forward to the reward of finishing the race and achieving her goal. Her drive to experience something personally gratifying is an example of _____.
Pratik is highly involved in the family car purchase. He does extensive research, looks at online reviews, and asks the opinions of both friends and work colleagues. Given Pratik's high level of involvement in this decision making, what is he likely to do?
Achieve relatively high value
Marissa's kitchen sink gets clogged very frequently. She asks her friends for suggestions to solve the problem. Her friends suggest an expensive but long-term solution—a garbage disposal unit that can be installed under the sink. She then does an online search to learn more about the different types of disposal units. Marissa's interest in the disposal unit is an example of what type of involvement?
Elaina has recently been promoted, and she is very happy with the trajectory of her career. She wants to celebrate her joy by buying a new cell phone. She has been loyal to a particular brand of cell phones, but on an impulse, she decides to try out a newly launched brand. Elaina's decision is an example of _____.
a mood-congruent judgment
John and Leah are good friends, and both take tennis lessons from the same instructor. John feels that his game is as good as Leah's. However, the instructor offers Leah more opportunities to play at competitive tournaments. John finds this unfair, and he feels jealous of Leah and angry with the instructor. In the context of cognitive appraisal theory, John has made what type of appraisal?
Luis, a realtor, works with potential homeowners and sellers to understand their lifestyle, family situation, location, and home requirements, along with their budget and many other factors that drive preferences and customer satisfaction. Luis asks several questions to get to know the family situation and build a stronger working relationship. This ability to understand specific circumstance and preferences reflects what on Luis's part?
ADC Inc. claims that its antivirus software helps block all computer viruses. This implies that ADC Inc. appeals more to consumers with a _____ focus.
Sophia loves socializing and getting together with her friends. She knows she's considered by her friends to be the one who organizes and plans any events, a role she takes great pride in. She wants to set up a dinner out for the group. She is looking to select a restaurant that everyone will like, a place that is convenient, and menu options that offer a wide array of choices for the entire group. What is motivating Sophia?
The opportunity to connect with her friends and feel good about the restaurant choice
Jennifer works at Hazel Hotel Inc. as a client executive. Her job requires her to remain calm and mask her emotions while interacting with clients in order to appear pleasant in her demeanor. In the given scenario, Jennifer's job stresses emotional _____.
After the purchase of a new car, Samantha continues to wonder if she made a good decision. A few days after she had bought the car, the salesperson follows up with a call and lets her know that the purchase also includes a free quarterly oil change and a yearly check. What is likely to increase for Samantha now that she has received these unexpected extra services (free of charge)?
- not emotional intelligence
- either emotional communication, contagion, involvement
Mathias, a college student, is particularly fond of burritos. When he was young, his mother used to prepare them on special occasions. Whenever he eats them now, he is reminded of his mother. What capacity is Mathias exhibiting?
Greta's friends have told her about a new brand of cosmetics. She begins to pay attention to advertising, sees displays in the retail store, does some online shopping, and receives related social media information on her smartphone. Greta's viewing related information through these multiple channels is an example of what?
A(n) _____ is a description of how each consumer varies according to specific trait patterns of behavior.
individual difference variable
Which of the following is a characteristic of personality?
Its traits are relatively stable and interact with situations to influence behavior.
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach to personality _____.
suggests personality results from a struggle between inner motives and societal pressures to follow rules and expectations
A consumer's _____ focuses on hedonic value.
In the context of Freud's psychoanalytic approach to personality, the ego works largely in accordance with the _____.
During the motivational research era, the researchers in the field of consumer research _____.
focused heavily on psychoanalytic approaches
The _____ focuses on particular variables, or traits, that exist across a number of consumers.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the idiographic perspective?
It focuses on the total person and the uniqueness of his or her psychological makeup.
In the context of consumer traits, materialism refers to the _____.
extent to which physical goods and possessions are important in a consumer's life
Which of the following traits contradicts the dimensions of materialism?
Which of the following is not one of the five dominant traits found in human personality, according to the five-factor model?
The approach to personality that assumes personality traits exist at varying levels of abstraction (some are specific and others are broad) is known as the _____.
hierarchical approaches to personality
Consumer lifestyles _____.
are useful in identifying viable market segments
The term _____ refers to the way consumer lifestyles are measured.
Which of the following is a primary motivation for consumers as classified by the Values and Lifestyles (VALS) approach to lifestyle segmentation?
Which of the following statements is true of the lifestyle analysis technique known as PRIZM?
It is used to identify commonalities in consumption patterns of households in various regions.
Which of the following is true of the symbolic interactionism perspective?
Consumers agree on the shared meaning of products and symbols.
The _____ represents the image that a consumer would like others to have about him or her.
ideal social self
Body piercings and tattoos are _____.
methods of promoting one's self-concept
Marketers use the self-congruency theory by _____.
segmenting groups of consumers who identify highly with product-user image
Which of the following is true under the concept of the self-congruency theory?
Brands become vehicles for self-expression.
Consumer identification is strengthened when _____.
there is congruency between a consumer's values and the values of a brand
Consumers who form close associations with organizations prove to be beneficial to those organizations because _____.
they are loyal to the brand
Janine is a frank and honest person who speaks her mind. However, she feels that people perceive her to be rude and blunt. It saddens her that people do not understand that she is just being truthful. Which of the following self-concepts is the cause of Janine's sadness?
Alana just graduated from college and must begin paying off her student loan. She also has a credit card that currently has a low balance. Until she finds a better job, Alana is working as a server at a local restaurant. She and a friend are moving into an apartment together and need to furnish it. Alana goes shopping for a low-priced TV for her bedroom, but when she spots the larger 60-inch Smart HDTV, she can't resist and buys it using her credit card. In the given scenario, Alana's behavior is influenced by her _____.
- either self-concept, id or innovativeness
Denise and Samir both have high-paying jobs and live in a gated community. Denise drives a Lexus automobile, and Samir drives a BMW. After their neighbor recently purchased a boat, Denise and Samir also purchased one. When asked to participate in a charity event, Denise and Samir declined to do so and decided to take a vacation instead. In the given scenario, Denise and Samir illustrate which of the following consumer traits?
Ayano owns a Honda Civic that is seven years old. She owned her previous Honda Civic for nine years. Ayano believes the Honda Civic is reliable, fuel-efficient, and an overall good value. She's rarely had any maintenance problems with either of her cars. Ayano is in the market for a new car and will once again purchase a Honda Civic. In this scenario, which of the following concepts explains the consumer-brand relationship?
Brand partner quality
The advertisement for a new luxury automobile shows a man working out in his large home gym. Then it cuts to the same man getting ready for work by putting on a designer suit and Rolex watch. Finally, it shows the man dining at an upscale restaurant. When he leaves the restaurant, he gets into his new luxury car. Which of the following self-concepts is this advertisement trying to appeal to?
Marketers for a laundry detergent brand aim to understand specific traits and behaviors of individuals to develop an engaging marketing message. What concept should the marketers use to capture insightful individual consumer data?
Hector has worked as a sales associate at an electronics store for two years. Although the job can be difficult at times, Hector views the challenges as learning opportunities. Whenever his manager gives him feedback, Hector is able to handle the criticism without taking it personally. An assistant manager position has opened up, and Hector has decided to apply for it. He likes to try new things and believes his skills would be valuable in the new position. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated in this scenario?
Kenneth is a loyal customer of a local designer boutique. He believes the boutique's clothes are made of premium fabric and that they are fashionable. He feels he looks good when he wears its clothes and so spends a substantial amount of money to buy all his clothes from the boutique. Which of the following is illustrated in the given scenario?
Dora is studying graphic design at her local university. She often creates illustrations for the university newsletter. Her computer is an important tool in creating her designs. When she learns about new technology that enhances graphic applications, she's always first in line to buy it. In the given scenario, Dora illustrates the FFM trait of _____.
opens to experience
Which of the following is an example of organizational identification?
Ruth is a big football fan of her alma mater and goes to several of their games each year.
The Robins are a family of four. Benjamin Robins is a real estate agent, and his wife is a professor. Both of them are religious, ambitious, and hardworking people. They try to instill the same values in their two children. The family usually likes to watch movies, go sailing, or take a long drive in their Audi on weekends. According to the Values and Lifestyles (VALS) segments, the Robins can be categorized as _____.
Juan is an enthusiastic biker and loves racing. He wants to purchase a new pair of biking boots for additional safety and to enhance his biker look. He compares the specifications, price, and durability of four brands. The pair of boots that he finally selects completely satisfies him in terms of the time and money invested and how it perfects his look. In the given scenario, Juan illustrates the consumer trait of being _____.
Pieter's, a chain of supermarkets, hires consumer analysts to analyze consumer lifestyles in a neighborhood where it plans to open a new store. This will help the store understand the lifestyles of potential customers and target them effectively. In the given scenario, which of the following would the analysts find most useful?
Mariana decides to enhance her wardrobe by purchasing a fashionable clothing item. Identify the situation that indicates the impact of self-esteem on her consumer buying behavior.
Mariana feels good about herself, including how she looks, when wearing the clothing item purchased.
Brenda is a video gamer who often plays interactive games with other skillful gamers for long periods of time. Which concept might be a factor when Brenda purchases a new video game?
- not personology
- either self-congruency, promotional strategy, materialism
Amira is considered to be a very mature person by her family and friends. She graduated top of her class and is a successful investment banker. She is a well-organized person and prefers to spend her money wisely, not extravagantly. According to the Values and Lifestyles (VALS) segments, Amira can be classified as a(n) _____.
Amel lives in a farming community. She works as a cashier in a supermarket, and she tries to instill the values of hard work, perseverance, and frugality in her children. In a recent study conducted on consumer behavior in her neighborhood, it was found that there was a significantly similar pattern in Amel's values and that of all the households. The community believed in spending only on necessities and not on extravagant purchases. In the given scenario, the community's values can be described as a(n) _____ that affects consumer behavior.
The Starbucks' brand can be described as outgoing, youthful, personable, and friendly. These traits are important to the company's messaging and overall success and recognition. By promoting these traits, Starbucks is using _____ to help differentiate its products.
Beatrice is from an elite and sophisticated family. Both her parents are investment bankers and are highly respected in their social circle. Beatrice would like to get her hair streaked purple and also get an eyebrow stud. She decides instead to behave in a sophisticated manner like her parents as she does not want to embarrass them in any way. In the given scenario, Beatrice's behavior is influenced by her ____.
- not alter ego, either superego, ideal self or actual self
Hennigan's is a department store. The management wants to analyze the consumer market to be able to change the store's image and attract more customers. Its analysis reveals that the ideal group to target would be the baby boomers due to the group's size and spending power. It wants to evaluate the traits of the group to be able to target them effectively. In the given scenario, which of the following demographic variables is being analyzed by the management of Hennigan's?
Which of the following statements is true of attitudes?
Attitudes and value are closely related.
According to the ABC approach to attitudes, which of the following is a component of attitude?
In the context of the ABC approach to attitudes, cognition refers to _____.
the beliefs that a consumer has about an object
The _____ of attitudes is based on the concept of reward and punishment.
The knowledge function of attitudes enables consumers to _____.
simplify decision-making processes
The _____ suggests that affect, behavior, and cognitions form in a sequential order.
hierarchy of effects approach
In the high-involvement hierarchy, _____.
consumer beliefs about products are formed first
When _____ are made, consumers often have some basic beliefs about products without necessarily having strong feelings toward them.
In the context of the attitude-toward-the-object (ATO) model, which of the following statements is true?
The strength of the belief that a certain object has an attribute can help predict a consumer's attitude.
The ATO approach is known as a(n) _____, wherein attitudes are formed holistically across a number of attributes, with poor ratings on one attribute being offset by higher ratings on another attribute.
The theory of planned action includes a perceived control component that _____.
assesses the difficulty faced by consumers in performing a behavior and the extent to which consumers perceive that they are in control of the product selection
_____ refers to the extent to which a company actively monitors its customers' evaluations of objects, products, services, issues, or people over time.
Which of the following models illustrates how attitudes are changed based on differing levels of consumer involvement?
Elaboration likelihood model
_____ refer specifically to information found in a message pertaining to a particular product, its attributes, its advantages, or the consequences of its use.
In the context of the peripheral route to persuasion, which of the following statements is true?
Consumers are unlikely to develop cognitive responses to a message.
The _____ proposes that consumers compare incoming information to their existing attitudes about a particular object or issue.
social judgment theory
Source effects _____.
refer to the characteristics of the person delivering a message that influence persuasion
How has interactive communications, such as websites and blogs, changed the communication model?
The flow of information uses a many-to-many approach.
The _____ states that a feature possessed by a source, such as a spokesperson, is most effective when it is paired with relevant products.
Alex, a marketer, asks an advertising agency to place an important piece of information toward the end of an advertisement in order to increase consumers' recall of the advertisement. In the given scenario, Alex wants to create what type of effect in the advertisement?
Pavani and her friends like to frequent the nearby outlet mall to browse a particular high-end accessory shop. Pavani purchases a purse from the store she knows is well beyond her budget and not a good deal. But she is eager to portray herself in front of her friends as having style and money to spare. This scenario exemplifies which function of attitudes?
Cody often opts to stay at the quite budget-friendly No-Frills Hotel chain when he travels. He feels strongly that all those extra amenities such as continental breakfast, complementary coffee in the room, and a morning newspaper outside the door are not necessary and would drive the price point up beyond what he is willing to pay. But No-Frills recently remodeled, and its signage touts a new fitness room, 24/7 complementary coffee and tea, and prepackaged breakfast pastries, yet no increase in rates. Cody continues to book rooms there since the price is unchanged though he still finds the additional amenities unnecessary. Cody's reception to this change represents what type of theory?
Hailey has just finished her exams. She goes to the mall to meet her friends and indulges in a shopping spree, purchasing many products impulsively. This is an example of what type of purchase?
Monique works as an editor in a leading fashion magazine. She buys trendy clothing to fit in with the others in her company. This is an example of which function of attitudes?
Garrett has always wanted a pickup truck. He realizes they don't get near the gas mileage his current compact car does and that gas prices have been on the rise recently. His job pays minimum wage, but his work is just a five-minute drive from his apartment. He has been wanting to set up a side job of mowing lawns and could really use the truck to haul his lawn equipment around. Garrett's weighing all these factors while pondering whether to purchase a truck represents which of the following?
Calypso Coffees and Teas wants to know consumer attitudes about its latest product. It has rolled out an herbal tea infused with hibiscus leaves. Calypso touts the benefits of antioxidants the tea offers and its claim of lowering blood pressure, on top of it being a new item. Which of the following statements is true about attitudes and would be applicable here?
Attitudes and value are closely related.
Rosa was asked to fill in a questionnaire as part of a job interview. There were several scenario-based questions that asked for her opinions, likes, and dislikes about people in the scenario. This questionnaire was used to assess her _____.
Simona decides to order a pizza for dinner. Without much deliberation, she orders one from a pizzeria that is quite popular in the neighborhood. Which of the following types of purchases would this be considered?
Aidan wants to cook his partner dinner. They love buffalo wings, so Aidan searches online for recipes using buffalo sauce. He has to wade through and click out of many prompts to get to the actual recipe. What is Aidan encountering here?
Tyler and his college buddies are watching the basketball finals and really don't pay much attention to the commercial advertising retirement plans as they feel they are too young to even think about that. But this particular commercial is playing music from one of their favorite bands, so they actually find themselves singing to the commercial and remembering the financial services company being promoted. What are Tyler and friends exhibiting?
- a. They are unlikely to develop cognitive responses to the message.
- c. They find that an incoming message is particularly relevant to their situation.
- d. They are less likely to pay attention to the attractiveness of the person delivering a message.
- b. They develop a number of thoughts regarding an incoming message that may contradict the information.
Samantha buys phones of a particular brand because she is familiar with their features. Although there are several other brands that offer phones with better features at more competitive prices, she does not want to purchase a phone of another brand and go through the trouble of exploring its features. Samantha's reasoning best illustrates which function of attitudes?
Jake has always bought a certain brand of activewear because he greatly admires the athletes who appear in the brand's ads. But recently one of the athletes endorsing the product was charged with disorderly conduct. Jake is one of many consumers who have opted to not support the brand any longer due to this negative publicity. The company witnesses the decline in sales and subsequently drops that athlete from its marketing campaign. Which of the following approaches has the company likely taken to make such a decision?
- behavioral intentions modeling
- attribute monitoring, attitude tracking, value-expressive function
Brand community is a special type of _____.
_____ generally have a set of stated rules, accepted values, and codes of conduct that members are expected to adhere to.
An aspirational group is a group _____.
in which a consumer desires to become a member
_____ occurs when an individual yields to the attitudes and behaviors of other consumers.
In which of the following types of social powers does a consumer imitate the behaviors and attitudes of groups as a means of identifying with the group?
_____ is associated with authority that comes from holding an important position in a group.
_____ refers to the ability of a group or individual to influence a consumer due to the group's or individual's knowledge of, or experience with, a specific subject matter.
Groups have the power to sanction group members for breaking rules or failing to follow expectations. This is known as _____.
In the context of reference group influence, the _____ of groups refers to the ways in which consumers use the behaviors and attitudes of reference groups as data for making their own decisions.
The _____ occurs when consumers conform to group expectations to receive a reward or avoid punishment.
The influence of reference groups is _____.
weak for product selection in the necessity category
Which of the following statements is true of reference groups and their influence on product selection?
For luxuries, reference group influence is strong for product selection.
_____ are systems of consumers that are formed based on common interests, associations, or goals.
_____ refers to self-conceptualization of the extent to which consumers perceive themselves as being an integral part of a group.
Which of the following is true of buzz marketing?
It can be facilitated through online technologies.
_____ is a guerrilla marketing technique in which consumers do not realize that they are being targeted for a marketing message.
The _____ refers to the way in which new products are adopted and spread throughout a marketplace.
Which of the following is true of a nuclear family?
It is viewed as consisting of a mother, a father, and siblings.
The _____ comprises those consumers who need to look after not only their own children, but their aging parents as well.
Which of the following roles in the household purchase process involves controlling information flow into the household?
Heather, a search engine optimization executive for a soft-drink manufacturer, is participating in an online discussion forum. The discussion is about the best brand of soft drink in the country. Under a fake identity, Heather writes a positive review of the soft drink that her company manufactures. In the given scenario, Heather is _____ to promote her products.
Maria's sister wants to buy a fur coat. Maria is insistent that her sister buy a fur coat made from fake fur and not real animal fur. Maria's suggestion is influenced by the fact that she is a member of the Animal Lovers Society. This scenario shows that reference group influence is _____.
strong for product selection where luxuries are concerned
Elijah is still part of a group of friends that has known each other since high school. The members still meet every weekend even though they all have families and jobs. They feel very involved and connected with the group. All the members of his group are very conscious about their health and the quality of food they eat. Their buying and eating habits have slowly influenced each other over the years, and the members now follow the same diet and exercise plans. In the given scenario, Elijah is a member of a(n) _____.
Abi is a fifteen-year-old student who lives with her parents and her younger sister, Kendra. Both her parents work, and Abi and Kendra share chores that they do around the house to help their parents. In the context of family structures, Abi's family is a _____.
Tahir is part of an online group. The group was formed on the basis of the members' shared interest in an online multiplayer video game. They play the game together and spend time exchanging game hacks and shortcuts to play the game. In this scenario, Tahir is part of a _____.
Michael is the founder of a search engine optimization company. He is eager to improve the quality of work in his company, and he decides to do this by incentivizing high performers. He promotes Elizabeth, a high achieving marketing executive, to the position of an assistant marketing manager. In the given scenario, Michael is using his _____.
Davida recently joined her high school debate team. The team has a tradition of loading up on double-shot espresso drinks the morning of a debate. As they carpool to the debate site, her friend pulls right up to the local Java Jam drive-through and orders tall drinks for all in the group without even asking what drinks everyone would prefer. Davida doesn't really like the taste of coffee but says nothing. She is experiencing what concept?
- social coercion
- expert power
Holiday Tree Decorators wants to reach out to prospective customers a month before Christmas. They advertise that everyone who buys from its stores will be invited to a community Christmas party with free food and drinks. The news spreads, and every day a large number of people queue up at its stores to buy Christmas decorations. In the given scenario, Holiday Tree Decorators is using _____.
Marianna is a baker and runs her own baking classes. Her husband is a marketing agent for Fresh Flour. While demonstrating how to bake a cake, Marianna uses Fresh flour and states repeatedly, "While you can use other flours, cakes baked with Fresh brand flour taste better." The result is that her baking students also purchase bags of Fresh flour from her. In the given scenario, Marianna is using _____ marketing to increase her husband's sales.
Hector is going to Australia on a business trip. He consults his travel agent to help him find the best places to visit and the best hotels to stay. In the given scenario, Hector's travel agent is playing the role of a _____.
Sweet-Tooth Inc., manufacturers of candy bars, wants to sell its latest variety of melt-in-your-mouth chocolate candies in India. Having researched the market, the company briefs its advertising agency stating that its advertisement must promote group belonging and cohesion. In the given scenario, Sweet-Tooth Inc. is ignoring prospective consumers who have a(n) _____.
Kalisha is the head of the IT department at a multinational corporation. Her friend Moira wants to buy a new laptop for work and has shortlisted two laptops. She gives Kalisha the specification for each laptop, who then shares her opinion on which one would be better for Moira. In the given scenario, Kalisha is exercising her _____.
Mia is known for her sense of style in college. For the graduation ceremony, Mia decides to wear a new watch. At the watch store, she chooses "Saturn," a very expensive watch. Mia's choice of a watch that is not just highly expensive but is sure to catch everyone's eye, exhibits the concept of _____.
- attention to environmental bias
- susceptibility to interpersonal influence
- separated self-schema
- household decision making
Riccardo is a 27-year-old who recently graduated with a master's degree. After living independently during his master's program, he decides to move back home with his parents to save money while he pays on his student loans. In the given scenario, Riccardo belongs to the category of _____.
Gabriel recently joined a metal rock band that some kids from his neighborhood formed. They all chipped in to purchase matching T-shirts emblazoned with the band name. But Gabriel personally hates the color of the shirt and is less than thrilled about the name the band decided on. But he shows up to the band's first practice session wearing the shirt, as much as it pains him, to convey his unity with the band even though he wasn't sure he had to wear it for practice sessions. Gabriel is exhibiting what type of influence?
- peer group
- value- expressive
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