24 terms

Genetic Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Genes
the units of heredity
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms
Genome
the complete set of genetic instruction characteristic of an organism, including protein-encoding genes and other DNA sequences
Genomics
the genetic field of comparing and analyzing genomes
Bioethics
a field of study founded in the 1970s to address moral issues and controversies that arise in applying medical technology
Ribonucleic Acid
a type of molecule that uses information in certain DNA sequences to construct specific proteins
Proteomics
a fields that considers the types of protiens made in a particular type of cell
Alleles
Variants of a gene
Mutation
changes in DNA sequences that distinguish alleles
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)
unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide.
Chromosomes
a highly wound continuous molecule of DNA and the proteins wrapped around it
Autosomes
pairs of chromosomes which do not differ between the sexes
Sex Chromosomes
the pair of chromosomes which determine the sexes
Karyotypes
charts that display the chromosome pairs from largest to smallest
Genotype
the underlying instruction (alleles present)
Phenotype
the visible trait, biochemical change, or effect on health (alleles expressed)
Dominnat
allele which has an effect when present in just one chromosome
Recessive
allele which must be present on both chromosomes to be expressed
Pedigrees
a chart that shows a trait in a family and how it is inherited
Gene Pool
the combined genetic information of all members of a particular population
Mulitfactorial
traits which are determined by one or more genes
Genetic Determinisim
the idea that an inherited trait is inevitable
DNA Profiling
the analysis of DNA fragments to see who they come from; compares genetic markers from noncoding regions that show variation between individuals
Biotechnology
the use of organisms to produce goods (including foods and drugs) or service