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Arts and Humanities
ARTS 101 Quiz 1- Chapters 1-6
Terms in this set (141)
a process or visual effect characterized by the simplification and/or rearrangement of the image
a sculptural term that means building up, assembling, or putting on material
sensitive to art or beauty, the study or theory of beauty dealing with the definition, inspiration, intent, forms, and psychological effects of art and beauty
the formal expression of a conceived image or imagined conception in terms of a given medium
a technique that involves grouping found or created three dimensional objects, which are often displayed in situ-that is, in natural position, or in the middle of the room rather than on a wall
originally a german school of architecture that flourished between the two world wars, attracted many leading experimental artists of both two- and three- dimensional fields
a sculptural technique in which liquid materials are shaped by being poured into a mold, aka substitution
a comprehensive idea or generalization, an idea that brings diverse elements into a basic relationship
artists who focus on the idea of the work and are much more concerned with conveying a message or analyzing the idea than with the final product
creative vision derived from the imagination
the expression, essential meaning, significance, or aesthetic value of a work of art. Refers to the sensory, subjective, psychological, or emotional properties we feel in a work of art, as opposed to our perception of its descriptive aspects alone
aptitude, skill, or quality workmanship in the use of tools and materials
name given to the stile invented by Picasso and Braque between 1907 and 1912 which uses multiple views of objects to create the effect of three dimensionality while acknowledging the two-dimensional surface of the picture plane. Signaling the beginning of abstract art, it's a semiabstract style that continued the strong trend away from representational art initiated by Cezanne in the late 1800s
the two-dimensional nature of an artwork or any of its elements, which emphasizes the essential flatness of a surface, also has generically referred to the ornamentation or enrichment of surface
a type of art that is based on adherence to actual appearances
the underlying plan on which artists base their total work. In a broader sense, it may be considered synonymous with form
elements of art (line shape, value, texture and color)
basic ingredients the artist uses separately or in combination to produce artistic imagery, produces the visual language of art
the manifestation through artistic form of thought, emotion, or quality of meaning, synonymous with content
the total appearance, organization, or inventive arrangement of all the visual elements according to the principles that will develop unity in the artwork; composition.
In sculpture, can also refer to the three-dimensionality of the work
1. The quality of an art material like stone, wood, or metal that can be carved or engraved. 2. An art form that retains the color, tensile, and tactile qualities of the material from which it was created. 3. The quality of hardness, solidity, or resistance found in carved or engraved materials.
Two-dimensional art processes such as drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, and so on that generally exist on a flat surface and can create the illusion of depth. Commercial applications include posters, newspapers, books, and magazines.
interior or exterior settings of media created by artists to heighten the viewers' awareness of the environmental space
the sculptural technique of shaping pliable materials by hand or with the use of tools, also known as modeling
in graphic art, a shape that appears to stand out three-dimensionally from the space surrounding it or that appears to create the illusion of a solid body of material. In the plastic arts, the physical bulk of a solid body or material
the materials and tools used by the artists to create the visual elements perceived by the viewer
a sculptural term for shaping a pliable material
the approach to art that is essentially a description of things visually experiences. Purely, it would not contain personal interpretation introduced by the artist
the unoccupied or empty space left after the positive images have been created by the artist
nonobjective, nonrepresentational art
A type of art that is completely imaginative, in which the elements, their organization, and their treatment are entirely personalized, and the image is not derived from anything visually perceived by the artist.
that which is based on the physical reality of the object and reflects no personal interpretation, bias, or emotion
a purely visual experience with no exaggeration or creative interpretation of that which is seen
A condition in which the components of art (subject, form, and content) are completely interdependent. Though not a guarantee of "greatness," the resulting wholeness is vital to a successful work.
the outermost limits or boundary of the picture plane
an actual flat surface on which the artist executes a pictorial image. In some cases, it acts merely as a transparent plane of reference to establish the illusion of forms existing in a three-dimensional space
an area that is essentially two-dimensional, having height and width. A two-dimensional pictorial surface that can support the illusion of advancing or receding elements. A flat sculptural surface
the use of elements to create the illusion of the third dimension on a two-dimensional surface, three-dimensional art forms such as architecture, sculpture, ceramics, and so on
the subject- whether representational or non representational- which is produced by the art elements or their combination
principles of organization
Concepts that guide the arrangement and integration of the elements in achieving a sense of visual order and overall visual unity
artists who focus on the execution of the work and are much more concerned with the technique they employ in creating the work than with the final product
A style of art that emphasizes universal characteristics rather than specific information. As a movement, it relates to painters like Honore Daumier in 19th-century france and Winslow Homer in the US in the 1850s
An artwork, graphic in concept but sculptural in application, utilizing relatively shallow depth to establish images. The space development may range from very limited projection to more exaggerated space development. It's meant to be viewed frontally, not in the round.
a type of art in which the subject is presented through the visual art elements so that the observer is reminded of actual objects
the art of shaping three-dimensional materials to express an idea
An area that stands out from its surroundings because of a defined or implied boundary or because of differences of value, color, or texture.
The interval, or measurable distance, between points or images; can be actual or illusionary.
the specific artistic character and dominant trends of form noted during periods of history. May also refer to artists' expressive use of media to give their works individual character
in a descriptive approach to art, it refers to the persons or things represented. In more abstract applications, refers to visual images that may have little to do with anything experienced in the natural environment
that which is derived from the mind, instead of physical reality, and reflects a personal bias, emotion, or innovative interpretation
in sculpture, replacing one material or medium with another
a sculptural term meaning the carving or cutting away of material
the manner and skill with which artists employ their tools and materials to achieve an expressive effect
Possesses the dimensions of (or illusions of) height, width, and depth. In the graphic arts, the feeling of depth is an illusion, while in the plastic arts, the work has actual depth.
Possesses the dimensions of height and width, especially when considering the flat surface, or picture plane.
the result of bringing the elements of art into the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety to give a sense of oneness
the measurable amount of defined or occupied space in a three-dimensional object
any stress or emphasis given to the elements of a composition that brings them more attention than other features that surround or are close to them. Can be created by a brighter color, darker value, greater size, or any other means by which a difference is expressed
A design that is formed through the systematic repetition of smaller designed units over an entire surface.
The use of similar imagery on either side of a central axis. The visual material on one side may resemble that on the other but is varied to prevent visual monotony.
having unequal or non-corresponding parts
Three-dimensional work characterized by considerable amounts of space; open, as opposed to massive, and often with extended appendages.
a sense of equilibrium between areas of implied weight, attention, attraction, or moments of force
a concept from Gestalt psychology in which the mind perceives an incomplete pattern or information to be a complete, unified whole. The artist provides minimum visual clues, and the observer brings them to final recognition
the arranging and/or structuring of all the art elements, according to the principles of organization, that achieves a unified whole. often used interchangeably with the term design
the principle of organization in which certain visual elements assume more importance than others within the same composition or design. some features are emphasized and others are subordinated. Often created by increased contrasts through the use of isolation, placement, direction, scale, and character
the distillation of the image to the basic essentials for clarity of presentation
Gestalt (Gestalt psychology)
a german word for "form"; an organized whole in experience. Around 1912, promoted the theory that explains psychological phenomena by their relationships to total forms, rather than their parts. In other words, our reaction to the whole is greater than our reaction to its individual parts or characteristics, and our minds integrate and organize chaotic stimuli so that we see complete patterns and recognizable shapes
"perfect" harmonious proportions that avoid extremes; the moderation between extremes
a traditional proportional system for visual harmony expressed when a line or area is divided into two sections so that the smaller part is to the larger as the larger is to the whole
a principle of organization in which parts of a composition are made to relate through commonality- repeated or shared characteristics, elements, or visual units
The positioning of planes, objects, or shapes so that they appear to pass through each other, which locks them together within a specified area of space.
art that involves an element of random or mechanical movement
A three-dimensional, moving sculpture.
moments of force
The direction and degree of energy implied by the art elements in specific compositional situations; amounts of visual thrust produced by such matters as dimension, placement, and accent.
a designed unit or pattern that is repeated often enough in the total composition to make it a significant or dominant feature
eye travel directed by visual pathways in a work of art. guided by harmonious connections, areas of variety, the placement of visual weights, areas of dominance, choices in proportions, spatial devices, and so on
any artistic design (sometimes serving as a model for imitation. a repeating element and/or design that can produce a new set of characteristics or organization
the comparative relationship of size between units or the parts of a whole
emanating from a center
the use of the same or similar visual effects a number of times in the same composition. may produce the dominance of one visual idea, a feeling of harmonious relationship, an obviously planned pattern, or a rhythmic movement
a continuance, a flow, or a sense of movement achieved by the repetition of regulated visual units, the use of measured accents
the association of size relative to a constant standard or specific unit of measure related to human dimensions
the exact duplication of appearances in mirror-like repetition on either side of a straight-lined central axis
The quality of simple massiveness; three-dimensional work lacking any significant extrusions or intrusions.
a visual quality in which a distant image or element can be seen through a nearer one
differences achieved by opposing, contrasting, changing, elaborating, or diversifying elements in a composition to add individualism and interest
a sense of visual oneness- an organization of the elements into a visual whole. Results from the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety
On three-dimensional objects, the sharp edge or ridge formed by two surfaces meeting at an angle. Made visible by cast shadow, it is often interpreted as a line.
Lines that are generally flowing and rhythmical
elegant, decorative writing
in art, the line that defines the outermost limits of an object or a drawn or painted shape. it is sometimes considered to be synonymous with outline. as such, it indicates an edge that also may be defined by the extremities of dark, light, texture, or color
a line that moves across a shape or object to define the surface undulations between the outermost edges
repeated strokes of an art tool, producing clustered (usually parallel) lines that create values. A subset of this method uses lines in different directions to result in darker values
lines that are drawn freely, quickly, and seemingly without inhibition in order to capture the intrinsic spirit and animation seen in the subject. Can imply past, present, and future motion of the subject
a line that dims, fades, stops, and/or disappears. the missing portion is assumed to continue and is visually completed by the observer as the line reappears
the path of a moving point made by a tool, instrument, or medium as it moves across an area. usually made visible because it contrasts in value with its surroundings. Three-dimensionally may be made using string, wire, tubes, solid rods, etc.
a positive area with clearly defined boundaries
a shape without clear definition: formless, indistinct, and of uncertain dimension
an irregular shape that resembles the freely developed curves found in living organisms
a shape whose boundaries consist of predominantly curved lines
ornamenting or enriching but, more importantly in art, stressing the two-dimensional nature of an artwork or any of its elements. Emphasizes the essential flatness of a surface
a condition, usually intentional on the artist's part, in which the viewer may, at different times, see more than one set of relationships between art elements or depicted objects
a simple shape such as a triangle, rectangle, or circle
a shape that does not physically exist but is suggested through the psychological connection of dots, lines, areas, or their edges
any graphic system used to create the illusion of three-dimensional images and/or spatial relationships in which the objects or their parts appear to diminish as they recede into the distance
shapes that have height and width but no indication of thickness
element used in such a manner as to create the illusion of the third dimension on a two-dimensional surface. also three-dimensional art forms such as architecture, sculpture, and ceramics
a shape whose boundaries consist of straight lines
the area between or bounded by the contours, or edges, of an object; the total shape
a style of artistic expression influenced by freudian psychology that emphasizes fantasy and whose subjects are usually experiences revealed by the subconscious mind through the use of automatic techniques (rubbings, doodles, blots, cloud patterns, etc.) Originally a literary movement that grew out of Dadaism, established by a literary manifesto written by Andre Breton in 1924
an area lacking positive substance and consisting of negative space; a spatial area within an object that penetrates and passes through it
relating to differences of lightness and darkness without regard for hue and intensity
the dark area that occurs on a surface as a result of something being placed between that surface and a light source
the distribution of lights and darks in a picture, usually in an attempt to develop the illusion of mass, volume, or space; also a technique of representation that blends light and shadow gradually to create the illusion of three-dimensional objects in a space or atmosphere
the relative degree of lightness and darkness demonstrated by a given color
a composition in which values are contained within the edges or boundaries of shapes. the value pattern reveals the subject(s) and is dependent upon its positioning
ornamenting or enriching but, more importantly in art, stressing the two-dimensional nature of an artwork or any of its elements, stresses the essential flatness of a surface
A value that has a level of middle gray or lighter.
the portion of an object that, from the observer's position receives the greatest amount of direct light
the relative lightness or darkness of a surface, seen in the objective world, that is independent of any effect created by the degree of light falling on it
a value that has a level of middle gray or darker
a composition in which values are not limited by the edges of shapes and therefore flow across shape boundaries into adjoining areas. the value pattern created is unrelated to the location of the subject(s)
value used to create the illusion of volume and space
a technique devised by da Vinci of softly blending areas from light to dark, creating subtle transitions. Images often have vague outlines and a hazy or smoky appearance
the darker value on the surface of an object that suggests that a portion of it is turned away from or obscured by the source of light
the illusion of limited depth, the imagery moves only a slight distance back from the picture plane
a technique of painting that exaggerates or emphasizes the effects of chiaroscuro. larger amounts of dark value are placed close to smaller areas of highly contrasting lights- which change suddenly- in order to concentrate attention on important features
the relative degree of lightness or darkness, the characteristic of color determined by the degree of lightness or darkness or the quantity of light rreflected by the color
the arrangement or organization of values that control compositional movement and create a unifying effect throughout a work of art
a texture derived from the appearance of an actual surface but rearranged and/or simplified by the artist to satisfy the demands of the artwork
a surface that can be experienced through the sense of touch
the illusion of depth produced in graphic works by lightening values, softening details and textures, reducing value contrasts, and neutralizing colors in objects as they recede
A technique of picture making in which real materials possessing actual textures are attached to the picture-plane surface, often in combination with painted or drawn passages.
Paintings with subject matters that concern everyday life, domestic scenes, family relationships, and the like.
a created texture whose only source is the artist's imagination. it generally produces a decorative pattern
The intrinsic character of a painting material - thickness, glossiness, and so forth - which can enrich a surface through its own textural interest.
A visual and tactile technique in which scraps of paper having various textures are pasted to the picture surface to enrich or embellish those areas. The printing of text or images on those scraps can provide further visual richness or decorative pattern.
any artistic design (sometimes serving as a model for imitation), or a series of repeated elements and designs that are usually varied and produce interconnections and obvious directional movements
a convincing copy or translation of an object's texture in any medium
a quality that refers to the sense of touch
the surface character of a material that can be experienced through touch or the illusion of touch, produced by natural forces or through an artist's manipulation of the art elements
literally "deceives the eye"; the copying of nature with such exactitude as if to be mistaken for the real thing
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