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62 terms

Endocrine System

Test on Chap 17-18
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Secreted by cells in a local area
Autocrine
Produced by a wide variety of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid; has a localized effect of other tissues
Paracrine
Produced by neurons; secreted into a synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitters
Secreted into the blood by specialized cells; results in coordinated regulation of cell function
Endocrine
Hormones travel through the ______
Bloodstream
Nervous System secretes ______
Neurotransmitters
Amount of time it takes for half of the circulating hormone to be removed from circulation and excreted
Half-Life
_____-Soluble hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and fatty acid derivative hormones
Lipid
Lipid Soluble hormones travel in the bloodstream bound to ______
Binding Proteins
_____- Soluble hormones include protein hormones, peptide hormones, and most amino acid derivative hormones
Water
What type of hormone circulates as a "free hormone" b/c it can dissolve directly into the blood and are delivered to their target tissue w/o binding proteins
Water-Soluble
Pattern of hormone secretion that remain relatively constant over long periods of time
Chronic Hormone Secretion
Pattern of hormone secretion that is released in response to stress; ex: epinephrine
Acute Hormone Secretion
Pattern of hormone secretion which fluctuate over a month in cyclic fashion; ex: female reproductive hormones
Episodic Hormone Secretion
Stimulation of hormone release when the blood level of the particular molecule changes, the hormone is released in response to the molecule's concentration
Humoral Stimuli
Stimulation of hormone release where following action potentials, neurons release a neurotransmitter into the synapse w/ the cells that produce the hormone
Neural Stimuli
Stimulation of hormone release when a hormone is secreted that, in turn, stimulates the secretion of other hormones; example of negative feedback
Hormonal Stimuli
Type of feedback where the hormone's secretion is inhibited by the hormone itself once blood levels have reached a certain point and there is adequate hormone to activate the target cell
Negative Feedback
Type of feedback when a tropic hormone promotes the synthesis and secretion of the tropic hormone in addition to stimulating their target cell
Positive Feedback
Occurs when the number of receptors rapidly decreases after exposure to certain hormones; ex: phagocytosis
Down-Regulation
Results in an increase in the rate of receptor molecule synthesis in the target cells; ex: LH in ovary cells during each menstrual cycle
Up-Regulation
Nuclear receptors can be found in the _____ and also in the _____
Cell nucleus and cytoplasm
Lipid-Soluble hormones diffuse through the _________
Plasma Membrane
Lipid-Soluble hormones bind to _______
Nuclear Receptors
Water-Soluble hormones bind to _______
Membrane-Bound Receptors
Chemical produced inside a cell once a hormone or another chemical messenger binds to certain membrane-bound receptors
Intracellular Mediators
Intracellular mediator in Kidney Cells
cGMP
Intracellular mediator in Liver Cells
cAMP
Intracellular mediators in Smooth Muscle Cells
IP3, DAG
Secretes 9 major hormones that regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of several other endocrine glands; aka hypophysis
Pituitary Gland
Regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland
Hypothalamus
Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; GHRH
Small peptide that inhibits growth hormone secretion
Growth Hormone-Inhibiting Hormone; GHIH
Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; TRH
Small peptide that stimulates luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; GnRH
Regulate the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland
Prolactin-Releasing Hormone & Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone; PRH & PIH
Prevents the output of large amounts of urine
Antidiuretic Hormone; ADH
The _____ of a solution increases as the concentration of solutes in the solutes increases
Osmolality
ADH stimulates the kidney tubules to retain _____
Water
This hormone plays an important role in milk production
Prolactin
This hormone stimulates the synthesis and the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; TSH
Most T4 cells are converted into ____ cells
T3
T3 and T4 transport
Transported through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of the cells. Within the cells they bind to receptor molecules in the nuclei. Thyroid hormones combined with their receptor molecules interact w/ DNA in the nucleus to influence regulatory genes and regulate protein synthesis
Hormone that regulates calcium levels in body fluids, stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause the number of osteoclasts to increase
Parathyroid Hormone; PTH
Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
Hypocalcemia
Adrenal Medulla secretes two major hormones, _____ & _____
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Epinephrine increases ____ ____ levels
Blood Glucose
Secretion of adrenal medullary hormones prepares the individual for physical activity and is a major component of the _____ __ _____ response
Fight-or-Flight
Glucocorticoids are involved in __-_____ responses
Anti-Inflammatory
Adrenal androgens stimulate the pubic and axillary hair growth and _____ _____ in females
Sex Drive
The pancreas is both and ____ gland and ____ gland
Endocrine and Exocrine
Pancreatic Islets secrete hormones that enter the ______ system
Circulatory
Alpha Cells secrete _____
Glucagon
Beta Cells secrete _____
Insulin
Delta Cells secrete _____
Somatostatin
Low blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion
Stimulate
High blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion
Inhibit
This hormones aids in spermatogenesis, development of genitalia, and sexual behavior
Testosterone
Main hormones secreted by the ovaries
Estrogen and Progesterone
Pineal Gland secretes
Melatonin
Autocrine Chemical messengers are
Released from cells that influence the same cell from which they were released
Paracrine Chemical messengers deal a lot w/
Inflammation