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Test on Chap 17-18

Secreted by cells in a local area


Produced by a wide variety of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid; has a localized effect of other tissues


Produced by neurons; secreted into a synaptic cleft


Secreted into the blood by specialized cells; results in coordinated regulation of cell function


Hormones travel through the ______


Nervous System secretes ______


Amount of time it takes for half of the circulating hormone to be removed from circulation and excreted


_____-Soluble hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and fatty acid derivative hormones


Lipid Soluble hormones travel in the bloodstream bound to ______

Binding Proteins

_____- Soluble hormones include protein hormones, peptide hormones, and most amino acid derivative hormones


What type of hormone circulates as a "free hormone" b/c it can dissolve directly into the blood and are delivered to their target tissue w/o binding proteins


Pattern of hormone secretion that remain relatively constant over long periods of time

Chronic Hormone Secretion

Pattern of hormone secretion that is released in response to stress; ex: epinephrine

Acute Hormone Secretion

Pattern of hormone secretion which fluctuate over a month in cyclic fashion; ex: female reproductive hormones

Episodic Hormone Secretion

Stimulation of hormone release when the blood level of the particular molecule changes, the hormone is released in response to the molecule's concentration

Humoral Stimuli

Stimulation of hormone release where following action potentials, neurons release a neurotransmitter into the synapse w/ the cells that produce the hormone

Neural Stimuli

Stimulation of hormone release when a hormone is secreted that, in turn, stimulates the secretion of other hormones; example of negative feedback

Hormonal Stimuli

Type of feedback where the hormone's secretion is inhibited by the hormone itself once blood levels have reached a certain point and there is adequate hormone to activate the target cell

Negative Feedback

Type of feedback when a tropic hormone promotes the synthesis and secretion of the tropic hormone in addition to stimulating their target cell

Positive Feedback

Occurs when the number of receptors rapidly decreases after exposure to certain hormones; ex: phagocytosis


Results in an increase in the rate of receptor molecule synthesis in the target cells; ex: LH in ovary cells during each menstrual cycle


Nuclear receptors can be found in the _____ and also in the _____

Cell nucleus and cytoplasm

Lipid-Soluble hormones diffuse through the _________

Plasma Membrane

Lipid-Soluble hormones bind to _______

Nuclear Receptors

Water-Soluble hormones bind to _______

Membrane-Bound Receptors

Chemical produced inside a cell once a hormone or another chemical messenger binds to certain membrane-bound receptors

Intracellular Mediators

Intracellular mediator in Kidney Cells


Intracellular mediator in Liver Cells


Intracellular mediators in Smooth Muscle Cells


Secretes 9 major hormones that regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of several other endocrine glands; aka hypophysis

Pituitary Gland

Regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland


Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; GHRH

Small peptide that inhibits growth hormone secretion

Growth Hormone-Inhibiting Hormone; GHIH

Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; TRH

Small peptide that stimulates luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; GnRH

Regulate the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland

Prolactin-Releasing Hormone & Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone; PRH & PIH

Prevents the output of large amounts of urine

Antidiuretic Hormone; ADH

The _____ of a solution increases as the concentration of solutes in the solutes increases


ADH stimulates the kidney tubules to retain _____


This hormone plays an important role in milk production


This hormone stimulates the synthesis and the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; TSH

Most T4 cells are converted into ____ cells


T3 and T4 transport

Transported through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of the cells. Within the cells they bind to receptor molecules in the nuclei. Thyroid hormones combined with their receptor molecules interact w/ DNA in the nucleus to influence regulatory genes and regulate protein synthesis

Hormone that regulates calcium levels in body fluids, stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause the number of osteoclasts to increase

Parathyroid Hormone; PTH

Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood


Adrenal Medulla secretes two major hormones, _____ & _____

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Epinephrine increases ____ ____ levels

Blood Glucose

Secretion of adrenal medullary hormones prepares the individual for physical activity and is a major component of the _____ __ _____ response


Glucocorticoids are involved in __-_____ responses


Adrenal androgens stimulate the pubic and axillary hair growth and _____ _____ in females

Sex Drive

The pancreas is both and ____ gland and ____ gland

Endocrine and Exocrine

Pancreatic Islets secrete hormones that enter the ______ system


Alpha Cells secrete _____


Beta Cells secrete _____


Delta Cells secrete _____


Low blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion


High blood glucose levels _____ glucagon secretion


This hormones aids in spermatogenesis, development of genitalia, and sexual behavior


Main hormones secreted by the ovaries

Estrogen and Progesterone

Pineal Gland secretes


Autocrine Chemical messengers are

Released from cells that influence the same cell from which they were released

Paracrine Chemical messengers deal a lot w/


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