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Produced by a wide variety of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid; has a localized effect of other tissues
Secreted into the blood by specialized cells; results in coordinated regulation of cell function
Amount of time it takes for half of the circulating hormone to be removed from circulation and excreted
_____-Soluble hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and fatty acid derivative hormones
_____- Soluble hormones include protein hormones, peptide hormones, and most amino acid derivative hormones
What type of hormone circulates as a "free hormone" b/c it can dissolve directly into the blood and are delivered to their target tissue w/o binding proteins
Pattern of hormone secretion that remain relatively constant over long periods of time
Chronic Hormone Secretion
Pattern of hormone secretion that is released in response to stress; ex: epinephrine
Acute Hormone Secretion
Pattern of hormone secretion which fluctuate over a month in cyclic fashion; ex: female reproductive hormones
Episodic Hormone Secretion
Stimulation of hormone release when the blood level of the particular molecule changes, the hormone is released in response to the molecule's concentration
Stimulation of hormone release where following action potentials, neurons release a neurotransmitter into the synapse w/ the cells that produce the hormone
Stimulation of hormone release when a hormone is secreted that, in turn, stimulates the secretion of other hormones; example of negative feedback
Type of feedback where the hormone's secretion is inhibited by the hormone itself once blood levels have reached a certain point and there is adequate hormone to activate the target cell
Type of feedback when a tropic hormone promotes the synthesis and secretion of the tropic hormone in addition to stimulating their target cell
Occurs when the number of receptors rapidly decreases after exposure to certain hormones; ex: phagocytosis
Results in an increase in the rate of receptor molecule synthesis in the target cells; ex: LH in ovary cells during each menstrual cycle
Chemical produced inside a cell once a hormone or another chemical messenger binds to certain membrane-bound receptors
Secretes 9 major hormones that regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of several other endocrine glands; aka hypophysis
Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; GHRH
Small peptide that stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; TRH
Small peptide that stimulates luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; GnRH
Regulate the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland
Prolactin-Releasing Hormone & Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone; PRH & PIH
The _____ of a solution increases as the concentration of solutes in the solutes increases
This hormone stimulates the synthesis and the secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; TSH
T3 and T4 transport
Transported through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of the cells. Within the cells they bind to receptor molecules in the nuclei. Thyroid hormones combined with their receptor molecules interact w/ DNA in the nucleus to influence regulatory genes and regulate protein synthesis
Hormone that regulates calcium levels in body fluids, stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause the number of osteoclasts to increase
Parathyroid Hormone; PTH
Secretion of adrenal medullary hormones prepares the individual for physical activity and is a major component of the _____ __ _____ response
Autocrine Chemical messengers are
Released from cells that influence the same cell from which they were released
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