57 terms

Cellular Respiration

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cellular respiration
the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
photosynthesis
the process in which autotrophs convert light energy into chemical energy
which types of organisms undergo cellular respiration
both autotrophs and heterotrophs
what happens when organic compounds are broken down into simpler compounds
energy is released
what is the energy released by the organic compound mostly used to do
produce ATP
the products of cellular respiration (3)
CO2, water, and ATP
two stages of cellular respiration
glycolysis and aerobic respiration
glycolysis
a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid
how photosynthesis and cellular respiration depend on each other
the products of photosynthesis are the reactants of cellular respiration, and the reactants of photosynthesis are the products of cellular respiration
anaerobic
does not require the presence of oxygen
aerobic respiration
pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make lots of ATP
what pyruvic acid undergoes with no oxygen present
fermentation
fermentation
the breakdown of pyruvic acid by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
type of reaction in cellular respiration
redox
redox reaction
one reactant loses electrons and another gains electrons
cellular respiration equation
C6H12O6+6O2---> 6CO2+6H2O+ATP
where the reactions of glycolysis take place
cytosol
step one glycolysis
two phosphate groups are attached to one molecule of glucose, ATP converted to ADP
step two glycolysis
6-carbon molecule split into two 3-carbon molecules of G3P
step three glycolysis
G3P molecules lose electrons and receive another phosphate group, two molecules of NAD+ converted into NADH
step four glycolysis
all phosphate groups are removed from the molecule to make two molecules of pyruvic acid, the four released phosphates convert four ADP to four ATP
net yield of ATP in glycolysis
2 ATP
total ATP produced in glycolysis
4 ATP
how many NADH molecules produced in glycolysis
2 NADH
how NAD+ becomes NADH
electrons released through glycolysis attach to NAD+
where pyruvic acid goes if there's no oxygen
fermentation
what fermentation regenerates
NAD+
what fermentation does not produce
ATP
how various fermentation pathways differ (2)
enzymes and products
the two common fermentation pathways products
lactic acid and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation
pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid
what is used to make lactic acid
one hydrogen atom from NADH and one free hydrogen proton
what happens to NADH in lactic acid fermentation
it is oxidized and converted to NAD+
type of reaction that occurs in muscles during strenuous exercise
lactic acid fermentation
organ where lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid
liver
the liver
where lactic acid is converted back into pyruvic acid
how many carbons in lactic acid
3
alcoholic fermentation
pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcohol
organisms that use alcoholic fermentation
plant cells and unicellular organisms
process of alcoholic fermentation (2 steps)
CO2 is removed from pyruvic acid, two hydrogen atoms added
what is regenerated in alcoholic fermentation
NAD+
one kilocalorie=? calories
1000
efficiency of glycolysis=
energy required to make ATP/energy released by oxidation of glucose
where pyruvic acid goes when oxygen is available
aerobic respiration
aerobic respiration produces ?x as much ATP as glycolysis
20
two stages of aerobic respiration
the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain
chemiosmosis
process by which ATP is made using the energy released as protons move across a memrbrane
as glucose is oxidized NAD+ is...
converted into NADH
the Krebs cycle, function
breaks down acetyl CoA
where the Krebs cycle takes place (eukaryotes)
the mitochondria
where the Krebs cycle takes place (prokaryotic)
None
mitochondrial matrix
the space inside the inner and outer membranes of a mitochondrion
what the mitochondrial matrix contains
enzymes to catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle
in the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid reacts with ? to form ?, and releases a ?
CoA, acetyl CoA, CO2 molecule
products of the Krebs cycle (3)
CO2, hydrogen atoms, and ATP
final electron acceptor of ETC
oxygen
efficiency of cellular respiration=
energy required to make ATP/energy released by oxidation of glucose