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ENGL 3630 Modules
Terms in this set (263)
English has 26 letters
English has roughly 44 sounds
Linguistic competence can be directly observed
English is a purely phonetic system
In English, word order is extremely important in creating an intended meaning
How many words do researchers estimate a child will have learned by the time they enter school?
How many words do researchers estimate a child will acquire each year?
How many words do researchers estimate a child acquires each day?
7 to 10
What is the name given to the type of language that is, for the most part, the language of school?
After the fifteenth century, as the sounds of English changed, the spelling of English words was consistently altered to reflect these sound changes.
Words such as "the," "have," "of," and "come" are very high frequency words, and most students have them in their speaking vocabulary when they enroll in first grade.
The two primary ways to control vocabulary are "to select only high-frequency common words" and "to introduce only a few words at a time."
We spell today pretty much the same way that they spelled words during the reign of King James I (1603-25).
What is the name of the paddle-shaped device that contained the letters of the alphabet, some selected syllables, and the Lord's Prayer?
What was the name of the first North American school book, which was pubished toward the end of the seventeenth century?
The New England Primer
What was the name of the school book published by Noah Webster in 1787?
The Blue-Back Speller
What did education reformer Horace Mann suggest should be the focus of instruction, rather than the letter?
What percentage of vocabulary encountered in beginning reading texts does Dolch's "A Basic Sight Vocabulary of 220 Words" account for?
What percentage of vocabulary encountered in academic texts does Dolch's "A Basic Sight Vocabulary of 220 Words" account for?
How many new words did Dolch recommend that teachers introduce to students at a time?
No more than 10.
Most teacher's guides during the 1930s and 1940s were organized around what approach to teaching reading?
The Direct Reading Approach
What were the names of the two primary characters in the series of books produced by Scott, Foresman, & Co., and developed by professor William S. Gray?
Dick and Jane
What was the name of the alternative beginning reading system that proposed that since many important, high-frequency words are not spelled the way they are pronounced, the alphabet should be changed so that it adequately represents English phonemes?
The Initial Teaching Alphabet
What was the name given to the conflict, occurring since the 1980s, between proponents of whole-language philosophy of literacy instruction and those who argue for a skills-based approach?
The Reading Wars
What is the name that Rousseau gave to the objects or toys that a student could move around to help in the learning process?
Rousseau advocated postponing reading and writing instruction unitl what age?
10 to 15 years of age
What term is defined as "the study of the nature of knowledge"?
What is the term that Holdaway uses to describe children's first attempts at reading, which are usually quite inaccurate?
According to Emergent Literacy Theory, children who are already proficient with listening and speaking tend to excel at early reading and writing tasks
At what age did Morphett and Washburne (1931) determine was the optimal age at which a child was developmentally old enough to be successful with the tasks of early reading?
Six and a half
Which of the following terms Refers to awareness that spoken words are composed of individual sounds ?
Which of the following terms refers to awareness of the sound structure of speech?
From early infancy, babies are able to clearly hear the separation between words.
At what age does the ability to hear distinct words and make meaningful associations emerge?
9 to 18 months of age
What percentage of the variance in children's reading ability proficiency at the end of first grade can be accounted for by Phonemic Awareness?
Adams reports that Phonemic Awareness eludes what percentage of middle-class first graders?
Phonemes are discrete units and never influence the sounds at surround them
Which of the following letters is considered one of the easiest letters for children between the ages of 3 and 7 to recognize?
Students who enter school with limited phonological awareness and weak initial alphabetic knowledge have a more difficult time acquiring reading skills
Some students will enter your class knowing some or all of the letters and sounds; others will know none.
During the Full Alphabetic Phase, the use of pictures and context to decode words should be encouraged; students should not be encouraged to sound out words.
All students exactly follow Ehri's Five Phases of Word Recognition Development easily and thoroughly.
Most students master word recognition skills by the end of the second grade, though teachers must be prepared to teach older students who have not learned phonics
When students can segment a three-phoneme word, such as mop into /m/ /o/ /p/, they are ready to match the sounds to letters and to begin decoding simple, regular words.
Research has clearly concluded that there is a prescribed order that is best to each the letters and sounds.
You should begin teaching continuous sounds because they are easier for young students to discern.
What is the term used to describe the ability to recognize letters immediately?
How long should it take kindergarteners to place all 26 plastic letters over an outline of the letter on an Alphabetic Arc?
2 minutes or less
Simple, everyday words in English tend to be of Latin origin.
Inflectional endings serve grammatical functions, but do not change the fundamental meaning of a word.
Typically, only two words are used to form a new compound word in English.
English can be described as a language divided into parallel vocabularies.
Romance and Latin derived words outnumber Anglo-Saxon derived words in both sheer number and frequency of usage in the English language.
English idioms are less frequent in stories and more frequent in informational texts.
Approximately how many languages are of Indo-European origin?
Spanish, French, Italian, and Portuguese are part of what language family?
English is part of what language family?
What is another name for Old English?
Approximately how many French words have entered the English vocabulary?
During the Renaissance, what language was drawn upon as the source to name new inventions, such as telescope or microscope?
What percentage of the words that appear in written English do the 25 most frequent words account for?
How many words make up the first group of English words - the Highly Frequent Words?
What is the word used to describe when common words in a language have multiple meanings?
Hart and Risley's (1995) research showed that the spoken vocabularies of children from professional families were larger than those of the parents in financially disadvantaged families.
The words that you choose to teach should be selected, at least partially, based on student knowledge.
The strategy of giving students a list of words, especially ones not related to anything they are reading or studying at the time, where they copy the word and the definition, has been shown to be the most effective strategy for learning vocabulary.
The most student-friendly definition of a word invariably comes from an academic dictionary.
Research has shown that by sixth grade, what percentage of the unknown words that students encounter in school texts can be resolved - to some extent - by merging contextual and morphemic information?
Just more than half
What is the method called where the teacher models a strategy by speaking their thoughts to the class?
What is the name of the type of Semantic Map that uses plus signs, minus signs, and question marks to analyze a text?
Semantic Feature Analysis
Comprehension is the purpose of reading
Instruction of a single strategy typically occurs over just a single day.
A set routine, developed from a series of steps, will help you be consistent in your instruction and will help ensure your lessons are direct and explicit.
An Anchor Lesson must always include a text.
Research has shown that the only good place to bring in teacher questioning is after the lesson has been completed
During the upper elementary grades, students shift from "reading to learn" to "learning to read."
Over time, through comprehension strategy instruction, the expectation is that students will master a collection of strategies that can be used together in combination.
Reading skills come very naturally for at-risk and struggling students.
Teachers should wait until foundation or basic reading skills are fully mastered before providing instruction in reading comprehension.
Which reading comprehension strategy includes procedures for "predictions," "question generation," "summarizing," and "clarifying"?
Which reading comprehension strategy includes procedures for "grouping," "reading and telling," and "summary"?
Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
Which reading comprehension strategy contains a section called "Click & Clunk" and "Get the Gist"?
Collaborative Strategic Reading
Which reading comprehension strategy includes such things as cognitive maps, semantic maps, Venn diagrams, and advanced organizers.
According to Cox, if teachers begin with open-ended questions and aesthetic questions and prompts, not only will student responses be more aesthetic, they will also include more efferent responses as well.
What type of model is Rosenblatt's Transactional Model of the Reading Process?
What type of reading is occurring if the reader's focus is on the information he or she will take away from the text - the more public, lexical, analytical, and abstracting aspects?
What type of reading is occurring if the reader's focus is on his or her own "lived-through" experience of the reading event - the more private, experiential, affective, and associational aspects?
Which of the following is a predominantly efferent stance?
Which of the following stances is a predominantly aesthetic stance?
Even younger children can be drawn into a discussion of such powerful issues as racism, discrimination, and civil rights by reading books.
The more students are read to, the less they will read on their own.
When you read aloud, you should be sure that lower-level students sit in the peripheral positions in the classroom - either to the side or in the back.
Choral reading is low-risk because students can participate as they feel ready and will not be singled out, because their voices blend in with the other students.
Choral reading is perfectly acceptable during Guided Reading.
If students hear 1 book read aloud every day from kindergarten through eighth grade, who many books will they experience?
A text at a student's particular instructional level is defined as a text that can be read with what percentage of accuracy?
Once students fall behind their classmates in reading ability, there is no easy fix
Allington (2012) recommends using a single "teaching text" with the whole class at least 75% of the time
The most common Response to Intervention (RTI) models have five tiers
What is another term that is often used interchangeably with Response to Intervention (RTI)?
In an RTI model, what approximate percentage of students will need the additional strategic and supplemental intervention of Tier 2?
In an RTI model, what approximate percentage of students will need the much more intensive intervention of Tier 3?
What is the recommended size for Tier 2 groups in elementary grades?
3 to 5
What is the recommended size for Tier 3 groups in elementary grades?
1 to 3
The current preferred term for students who are acquiring English as a Second Language is "limited English proficient"
Second language learners, like first language learners, may overgeneralize plural formation or regularize irregular verbs
Teachers should avoid using nonverbal communication, such as gestures or mimes, in the classroom.
Children who learn a language after puberty (age 12 or 13) tend to speak a second language with an accent.
For older learners, literature-based reading instruction can exemplify how written language is used and can thus contribute to grammatical and pragmatic knowledge.
Teachers should avoid using a biliterate approach if at all possible, since it only confuses the student.
Students between the ages of five and twelve may have a cognitive advantage over younger children because they are more mature and they already know a first language.
BICS is more challenging than CALP because it takes more time to develop.
What do experts call learning two languages from birth to roughly five years of age?
What do experts call learning a second language after the age of five?
What is the name given to the phase that children go through where they may understand most of the discourse addressed to them in a second language, but are unable to (or choose not to) respond?
The Silent Period
Neurolinguistics findings indicate that children who acquire a second before what age will behave like native speakers?
Before the age of five
Which of Cummings (1994) two complementary systems are those aspects of language proficiency are necessary for literacy obtainment and academic success and enable students to have academic, analytical conversation and to independently acquire factual information?
Which of Cummings (1994) two complementary systems are those aspects of language proficiency that are cognitively undemanding and include known ideas, vocabulary, and syntax, and are used in daily routine communicative exchanges?
What is the name, given by Steven Krashen, to modified language that is just a little bit beyond a child's current capabilities?
Teaching students how to use the Internet is a priority so that they can become fully involved in today's digital world
Online materials are always linear and sequential
Students overwhelmingly prefer to look up the definition of words using online dictionaries rather than print resources
It is highly recommended that teachers avoid using digital readers (e-readers) with students who have disabilities and special needs, such as visual impairments, and with English learners and struggling students
Because technology resources make word study fun, students are more likely to spend more time studying targeted words and to deepen their level of vocabulary knowledge
It is impossible to engage students in literacy activities like learning how to take notes through a digital reader
What is the term used to describe the requirement that today's students need to become proficient in new ways of accessing, understanding, and communicating information?
Which Principle of Classroom Reading Development states that it is your job as a teacher to locate where each child is in his or her development so you can offer appropriate instruction to continue growth and fill in any learning gaps?
Principle 1: The Teacher's Goal is to Find Out What Children Can Do
Which Principle of Classroom Reading Development states that if you know the highest level reading skills that your students can do alone (X), then you can accurately predict which reading skill they should learn next (Y) with your assistance?
Principle 4: Analyze Students' Assessment Results Using If-Then Thinking
The goal of these ongoing assessments is to help teachers identify what students have learned during and after instruction and to decide who may need assistance and with which strategies and skills
The goal of these assessments, which are used after the fact (post-teaching) is to make decisions about the effectiveness of the teaching strategies used
The purpose of these assessments is to compare student scores against specific criteria such as reading curriculum goals, lesson objectives, or benchmark standards
The purpose of these assessments is to compare an individual student's test scores to another group of students who took the same test
This refers to the trustworthiness or dependability of results obtained from assessment administrations given to the same set of students under different circumstances
This refers to the degree to which an assessment actually measures what it is claiming to measure
The products of on-going assessment can serve the dual purpose of instruction and assessment
The results of on-going assessment are not immediately available, so they have no immediate effect on instruction for each child
What is another term that is used for on-going assessment?
Books read at what percent of accuracy while conducting a running record are considered to be at the student's instructional level?
Books read with what percent of accuracy while conducting a running record are considered to be at the frustration level and generally are not appropriate for either guided or independent reading?
89% or less
On-demand assessments are administered, scored, and interpreted the same way for all test takers
The "standardization" of on-demand assessments causes a decrease in the reliability of the assessment
The goal of these tests is for all students to demonstrate mastery of the information and skills they have been taught
These standardized tests can be used to determine whether a school's curriculum reflects national expectations of what children should know at a specific grade level and to compare students to one another
For English Language Learners, it is important to measure content knowledge without the interference of language, especially when assessing ELLs who are at lower levels of English proficiency
Parent-Teacher Conferences should feature a one-way exchange of information - from teacher to parent
During a Parent-Teacher Conference, when areas of concern are discussed, it is important to provide examples of the child's work or review the observational data to illustrate the point
The writing process is recursive, not linear
In the drafting stage, students should be sure and write slowly, being careful not to make any spelling errors
Writers should be sure and revise their rough drafts immediately after finishing them
Teachers should limit the number of revision suggestions they make and should make all suggestions specific
Mechanical skills are best taught during the drafting stage
What percentage of writing time does Murray (1982) believe should be spent on prewriting?
What do Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod, and Rosen (1975) define as "the manner in which the writer expresses a relationship with the reader in respect to the writer's understanding"?
What is the name of the process where students read their rough drafts to locate and mark possible errors?
What word means "seeing again"?
What is the name that Graves and Hansen (1983) give to specially-designated place that students can use to read their stories to their classmates?
Once in a while in the Editing Stage, students change a correct spelling and make in incorrect, but they correct far more errors than they create
What was the name given to the first modern theory of the composing process?
What is the name of the movement from the 1960s that helped to create the breakthrough for understanding the importance of teaching the composing process?
New Education Movement
What were the "Pre-writing" theories of Rohman and Wlecke primarily concerned with?
Sommers (1979) argued that since we can see significant recurring patterns in composing, we can hypothesize that the composing process is both linear and ___________?
What type of approach did Emig (1971) use to research her subject's approach to the composing process?
What type of methodology did Emig (1971) use to research her subject's approach to the composing process?
What is the name that Emig gives to the formal writing sponsored by the teacher?
What is the name that Emig gives to the personal writing initiated by the student?
According to theorists like Bruffee and Bizzell, even when a writer seems to be just trying to get down some ideas, seemingly heedless of the audience, she is functioning within a _____________?
Reading and writing are reciprocal processes
Teachers should avoid talking about the similarities between the reading and writing processes because it just confuses students
Reading contributes to students' writing development and writing contributes to students' reading development
Children dislike sharing their writing with their peers
Children want, and need, to talk to their teachers about their writing
Teachers can demonstrate how expert writers write by talking through what they are doing as they write
According to Martinez and Teale (1987), teachers should always use lined paper when teaching young children how to write
Teachers should introduce Writing Center materials gradually so as not to overwhelm their students
According to Graves (2004), how much time should children be given to write daily?
Forty-five to sixty minutes per day
In writing, children using word processors do which of the following:
Have fewer fine motor control problems
During the drafting stage, students should be taught not to spend time worrying about spelling or grammar
It is important that a text be 100% free of errors before it gets to the publishing stage
A word wall should be built up throughout the year
Personal word books are great places for students to record words for things they want to write about but are likely not in a dictionary
Definitions must be included with the word in a Personal Word Book
Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching spelling every day as part of a student-centered approach to teaching language skills
Invented spelling is something that must be explicitly taught
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students rethink what they've written, share with others in a reader's circle, conference with the teacher and other students, clarify meaning, and expand ideas?
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students choose the final form, make a final copy of the writing, and share pieces by reading them aloud?
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students put their ideas down on paper, focus on meaning rather than conventions, try out possibilities, and talk over drafts with others?
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students proofread, rephrase and refine, check spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, form and legibility, and correct the draft to create a final copy
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students share and draw on their own experiences, read or listen to stories read aloud, generate ideas and organize thinking, talk over ideas with others, and brainstorm ideas?
What does Weaver (1996) define as the description of the syntax or structure of a language and prescriptions for its use, involving the principles of word and sentence formation?
What does Weaver (1996) define as correctness, or using the appropriate word or phrase in a sentence or the socially preferred way of using language within a dialect?
What are the two parts that a sentence must have?
A Subject and a Predicate
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "I don't got none" or "Joe didn't see nobody"?
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "hisself" or "them books"?
Nonstandard Pronoun Form
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "we was" or "he don't"?
Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement
Practicing using keyboarding software for how many minutes at a time can help children develop the skills they need?
10 to 15 minutes
How long did it take the Internet to reach a user base of 50 million people?
What is the name of the activity that has students use the Internet to discover answers to questions and allows teachers to plan specific tasks that engage students in analyzing information and demonstrating their understanding of it?
Modeled writing is an effective tool for teaching new vocabulary to students within a meaningful and authentic context
During Shared Writing, the teacher should be sure and just write whatever the students say and how they say it, errors and all
During Interactive Writing, the teacher should not worry about handwriting
Students should include the date on each entry when writing in their Journals
Experts are in agreement that teachers should always assign a topic for students to write about in their Journals
As a general rule, journal writing should not be corrected; however, teachers should provide corrective feedback
Low-achieving students find writing even more difficult than reading
Since low-achieving students may have limited experience selecting topics, teachers should model the process for them
In general, low-achieving students tend to have compositions that are long and wordy
When working with low-achieving students in the drafting stage, you should emphasize correct spelling, capitalization, handwriting, and the appearance of the paper
During writing conferences, low-achieving students may reveal the process they are using in their writing, the struggles they are having, and the personal perceptions that may hinder their progress
If the handwriting of low-achieving students is a serious problem, you can have students dictate their pieces or use a word processor if they have adequate keyboarding skills
During the revising stage, you should demonstrate to low-achieving students the shortcuts they can take
Normally in the editing stage, all errors are corrected. You should do the same for low-achieving students
It is important to let low-achieving students know that the piece they are writing is ultimately the writer's responsibility
During the planning stage, you should have younger low-achieving students use drawing to encapsulate their ideas, because drawing provides them with a stable prompt for suggesting what details they might develop and that taps into another dimension, helping them retrieve details they might not have thought of
All English Language Learners (ELLs) are familiar with the Roman alphabet
Sentence level errors by English Language Learners (ELLs) may be influenced by their primary [native] language(s)
The writing development process for English Language Learners (ELLs) is similar to the process for native English speakers
There is no proven relationship between English Language Learners' (ELLs) ability to express themselves orally and their ability to express themselves in written English
English Language Learners (ELLs) with literacy skills in their native language can never transfer those skills to English writing
Research suggests that letter formation and spelling skills may most easily transfer for those literate students whose native language, such as Spanish, French, German, or Tagolog, uses the same alphabet as English
All language transfer from an English Language Learner's first language is "positive" transfer
The English oral language skills of English Language Learners (ELLs) have the most impact on word-level writing skills
What is appropriate for a fifth grade student born in the United States may not be appropriate for a 10- or 11-year-old refugee English Language Learner student
For English Language Learners (ELLs) who come from cultures where students conform to the group, sharing personal opinions poses difficulties
Like in English, the composition conventions in all languages dictate that a written composition must begin with a thesis in the first paragraph
According to Leki (1992), a good way to view English Language Learner's (ELLs) grammatical errors is to view second language writing as a kind of foreign accent
It is important to correct all surface grammatical errors of English Language Learner's (ELLs) writing, since it will lead to significant improvement in subsequent writing tasks
Overall, teachers can expect English Language Learners (ELLs) to write perfect papers every time
English Language Learners (ELLs) need ample opportunities to use language in context
In writing assessment, this refers broadly to the extent to which an instrument truly measures what it is intended to measure
Under which type of validity are the constructs concurrent and predictive validity included
In writing assessment, this refers to the consistency with which a writing sample - traditionally called a test of writing - is assigned the same rank or score after multiple ratings by trained evaluators
Students should never be involved in assessing their own writing and that of their peers
Portfolios require very particular scoring procedures
Students should be given options from which to select when compiling their Portfolio collection
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development allows writers to "present a series of drafts leading to an exemplary final product, enabling them to represent their processes as writers and readers as reflected in sequential iterations of their products"?
Evolution Over Time
Collection is the source of a Portfolio's greater type of which validity?
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development "promotes revision, encouraging students to assume responsibility for their learning by giving them control over how they manage their time"?
What does the National Writing Project (2010) define as "a compilation of a writer's products, displayed in the form of a Web site, slideshow, or other form of multimedia"?
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development allows writers to "explain their learning, how portfolio entries evolved, how entries compare to one another, and how writing has enhanced their literacy skills"?
Teachers may need to restrict the time spent on assessing each piece of writing to a fixed period, for example, 15 to 20 minutes per sample
You should specify that all writing tasks will be formally assessed
1) Search for and locate information
2) Impose an organization on the information they are reading
3) Check the accuracy, relevance, and quality of information on webpages
4) Combine information from multiple texts
1) Oral language
2) Visual learning tools
3) Teaching vocabulary
4) Reading stories
1) Skype; podcasts; presentation software
2) Virtual field trips; online art resources; visual language software; digital learning games
3) Word Clouds; crossword puzzles; comic strips; video clips; scavenger hunts
4) WebQuests; Digital Storytelling; Literature Focus Units Websites
2) Multiple modalities
1) Hypertext lacks the familiar organization of books; its dynamic and can be used in a variety of ways; readers impose a structure that fits their own needs.
2) Online texts integrate words, images, and sounds to create meaning
3) Many related texts are available on the Internet, and they influence and shape each other
4) Web pages often include features that engage readers and allow them to customize their searches, link to other websites, play games, listen to video clips, and send emails
1) Screening Assessment
2) Diagnostic Assessment
3) Progress-Monitoring Assessment
4) Outcomes Assessment
1) Are administered to all students to provide a portrait of where students are in their reading development, as well as any preexisting deficits that may put them at risk for making inadequate progress.
2) Purpose is to help teachers identify specific reading problems so they can plan appropriate instructional interventions.
3) Teachers assess student progress at least three times during the year at predetermined intervals.
4) Used to determine the overall effectiveness of the literacy program for al students.
1) Concepts about Books
2) Conventions of Print
3) Comprehension of Stories
4) Attitude Toward Books
1) Identify the front, back, top, and bottom pf a book; turn the pages of a book correctly, holding the book upright; point to where a where a reader begins reading on a page
2) Show that a reader reads left to right with return sweeps; find a requested letter or provide the letter's name; ask questions or make comments about letters
3) Answer and ask literal questions about story; say new words and dialogue from story; connect information in stories to events in his/her life
4)Participate in book-sharing routine with caregiver; listen attentively to a variety of genres; ask adults to read to him/her
1) Anecdotal Notes
2) Vignettes or Teacher Reflections
4) Running Records
1) These are teacher notes describing a child's behavior. In addition to the child's name, the date, and the classroom area, the specific event or product should be described exactly as it was seen and heard
2) Recording of reflections of significant events make after the fact, when the teacher is free from distractions; are prepared some time after a behavior has occurred and are based on a teacher's memory of the event.
3) Observational aids that specify which behaviors to look for and provide a convenient system for keeping records; can make observations more systematic and easier to conduct
4)Essentially a visual recording of the student's reading word by word, enabling a teacher to identify the reading strategies the student may or may not be using and the the types of errors the students makes while reading
1) Informational Writing
2) Narrative Writing
3) Persuasive Writing
4) Poetry Writing
1) Autobiographies; biographies; directions; interviews; reports
2) Original short stories; personal narratives; retellings of stories; sequels to stories; scripts of stories
3) Advertisements; book and movie reviews; commercials; opinion pieces; persuasive letters
4) Acrostic poems; five senses poems; found poems; free verse
1) Stage One - Prewriting
2) Stage Two - Drafting
3) Stage Three - Revising
4) Stage Three - Revising
5) Stage Five - Publishing
1) The getting-ready-to=write stage, where writers start the writing process before they're completely thought out their topic
2) The stage where students get their ideas down on paper and write on every other line to leave space for revisions.
3) The stage where students clarify and refine the ideas in their compositions.
4) The stage where students polish their compositions, where the focus changes from content to mechanics.
5) The stage where students bring their compositions to life by sharing them with classmates, parents, or community members.
1) Expressive Writing
2) Poetic Writing
3) Transactional Writing
1) The most natural type of writing , meant to express ideas to a known audience.
2) A complex discourse between the self and a subject and deals with audience only peripherally.
3) It communicates information, but it places the writer in a passive role and engages her in a complex relationship with the audience.
1) Consists of generating information, organizing ideas, and setting various goals.
2) Expresses the planned material in the visible language of acceptably written language.
3) Involves evaluating and revising the written text to improve its quality.
Children are aware of the purposes of writing but lack the concept of "word" and that words can be divided into phonemes; use scribbles, letter-like forms, and alphabet symbols to represent words.
Children understand that letters represent sounds in words; they begin to use letter spellings to make the association between letters and sounds, making closer approximations to true spelling but omitting major sounds.
Children are able to represent all the surface sound features of words and spell words they way they sound to them; they have invented a system of phonetic spelling, based on their awareness that letters and words represent sounds
Children begin to spell conventionally at this stage; in addition to being able to spell
Children are beginning to spell correctly; their knowledge of word meanings is growing;
Morphemic and Syntactic Stage
Children increasingly understand how meaning and grammatical structure controls spelling in English; they are better at doubling consonants and spelling alternate forms of the same word and at using word endings; are able to use knowledge of the importance of meaning and syntax in spelling
1) Kindergarten through Grade 2
2) Grades 3 through 5
3) Grades 6 through 8
1) Language Experience Stories; Interactive Group Stories; Alphabet Books; Community Journals; "All about Ne" books; "All about Us" books; Content-Area Topic Books; Riddle Projects.
2) Autobiographies; Biographies; Mini-Research; Timelines; Stories; Newspapers; Scripts; Poetry Forms.
3) Reports in the Content Areas; Expressive Writing; Newsletters; Editorials; Posters and Advertisements; Storyboards.
3) Uniform Resource Locator
4) A Hit
1) What Internet users use to navigate from page to page.
2) The elements that enable users to move on the web and find the information they seek.
3) The more formal name for a website address.
4) What each source that is identified through a keyword search is called.
1) Sentence Unscrambling
2) Sentence Imitating
3) Sentence Combining
4) Sentence Expanding
1) Teachers choose a sentence from a book students are reading and divide it into phrases. They present the phrases in random order, and students try to duplicate the author's original order by reagganging the phrases and unscrambling the sentence.
2) Students choose a sentence with an interesting structure to imitate from a book students are reading. The students create a new sentence on a topic that imitates the structure and style of the original sentence.
3) Students combine and rearrange words in sentences to make the sentences longer and more conceptually dense.
4) Teachers choose a rich sentence from a book students are reading and present an abridged version. Then students expand it, taking care that the words and phrases they add blend in the the author's style.
1) Declarative Sentences
2) Interrogative Sentences
3) Interrogative Sentences
4) Exclamatory Sentences
1) They make statements.
2) They ask questions.
3) They issue commands.
4) They communicate strong emotion or surprise.
1) A word used to name something - a person, a place, or a thing.
2) A word used in place of a noun.
3) A word used to describe a noun or pronoun.
4) A word used to show action or state of being.
5) A word or group of words used to show position, direction, or how two words or ideas are related to each other.
6) A word used to connect words and groups of words.
7) A word or phrase used to express strong emotion and set off by commas or an exclamation point.
1) A Simple Sentence
2) A Compound Sentence
3) A Complex Sentence
4) A Compound-Complex Sentence
1) A sentence that contains only one independent clause.
2) A sentence that has two or more independent clauses.
3) A sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
4) A sentence that has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
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