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Terms in this set (36)
a fallacy involving personally attacking your opponent instead of attacking their argument.
the view that it's bad to bring people into existence.
Appeal to Authority Fallacy
acceptance of evidence or information from a source when it's not wise to do so.
involving investigating specific concrete moral issues that apply to real life.
Begging the Question
a fallacy in informal logic involving presupposing the truth of your conclusion in at least one of your premises.
suffering originates in desire; rebirth; karma; four noble truths; eightfold path.
the tendency to look for evidence in favor of one's controversial hypothesis and not look for disconfirming evidence, or tp pay insufficient attention to it.
believes that coming into existence is always a serious harm and good things in life make life better than it could be, but if one never exists, you're not truly deprived of those good things.
the conclusion must follow from the premises and is contained within the premises, which guarantees the truth of its conclusion.
ethical theory that guides and assesses what we ought to do and morality is completely or largely determined by performing one's duty.
a hedonist that saw pleasure we should seek as a state of unperturbness of the soul and placed a high importance on virtue, (virtue as a means of pleasure, not human flourishing), and stressed the importance of the duration of pleasure over momentary intensity of enjoyment.
an informal fallacy resulting from the use of a particular word/expression in multiple senses within an argument.
Fallacy of False Dilemma
a fallacy in informal logic where a series of choices are being presented as the only options when there are other options available.
logic dealing with the form of reasoning that helps us identify patterns of good and bad reasoning so we know which to follow and which to avoid.
believed that torture, in some cases, is required and acknowledges that torture is prima facie wrong but is morally permissible to do to bring about a greater moral good.
an argument is wrong because of where the belief originated.
jumping to a conclusion from a sample that is too small based on insufficient information or evidence.
based on experience with a conclusion that is not 100% certain and goes beyond the premises and doesn't necessarily follow from the premises.
contrasts the traditional view (essence precedes existence) and the atheist existentialism view (existence precedes essence) and says we're thrown into this meaningless and valueless universe and we must give it meaning through our actions.
argument for the meaningfulness of death: people are born all the time. if nobody ever died, the world would grow overcrowded. everyone should have a chance at a decent life ensures everyone has a turn.
meditating on death helps us more fully live in the present and promotes the recognition that we can only make the present our duty without concern for the future.
studies the origin, nature, and meaning of moral properties and attempts to understand the ultimate presuppositions that go into morality.
life is a meaningless repetition of pointless activities.
The Posthumous Wrongs Thesis
it is possible for an act to make things worse for a person, or to make that person's life go less well for them, in a way that generates a moral reason against doing it, even if the act takes place after the person is dead.
assuming that because two things are alike in one or more respects, they are necessarily alike in some other respect.
we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or unrepresentative evidence.
an irrelevant topic or consideration introduced to divert attention away from the original issue.
death and the afterlife.
the attempt to scare someone into believing something.
illicitly believing that once the first step is taken, the others will follow.
a sound deductive argument = valid form and the premises are true.
says hazing should be permitted and is not necessarily wrong when there is informed consent. says we should not be significantly grateful to veterans and it is bad to express gratitude towards those who do not deserve it.
Straw Man Fallacy
misrepresenting an opponent's position or a competitor's product to make it easier to attack them or to tout one's own product as superior.
involves either both the argument itself being invalid or both of the premises being false.
consequentialist and hedonist ethical theory founded by Jeremy Bentham based on the greatest happiness principle stating that actions that tend to promote happiness for all are morally right and includes all sentient beings.
ethical theory that emphasizes the moral character of a person and morality is completely or largely determined by if an act makes you a better person.
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Philosophy 1320 Midterm- Jennifer Garcia TXST
Lublink Ethics Final PHI2600
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