5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- "popular" culture
- On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
- Cesare Beccaria
- a Full title: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (English: An Anatomical Exercise of the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals). Written by Harvey (#35) in 1628, it stated that the heart pumped blood, which then went through the body before returning to the heart again, which pumped it to the lungs, then back to the heart, then out to the body again.
- b Literally "the culture of the people", pop culture is whatever cultural elements are most popular among the population, mainly using the most popular media (honestly, do you think that modern popular culture could consist of Linear B woodcuts?) and an established lingua franca (these days, English is probably closest).
- c An Italian nobleman and political thinker, the Marquis of Beccaria (1738 - 94) wrote On Crimes and Punishment (#97), an important work in criminology that condemned the death penalty.
- d philosophical/scientific doctrine, with heavy basis in Cartesian thought (#18), which questions the reliability of claims by subjecting them to rigorous testing and investigation. In philosophy, it is the idea never to make a truth claim (including the claim that truth is impossible which is itself a truth claim!). Ambrose Bierce and Voltaire (#43) were notable skeptics.
- e A group of 18th century economists who believed that the entire wealth of nations was derived from agriculture, it was the first really well-developed economic school of thought, and came directly before classical economics, the school of Adam Smith (who published his Wealth of Nations in 1776).
5 Multiple choice questions
- The British response to the Milan Decree (#183), it was in effect permission for the Royal Navy to blockade French and Continental ports. This would have the indirect effect of helping cause the War of 1812.
- My personal favorite painter and bridge between neoclassicist (#88) and romantic schools, David (1748 - 1824) was first the artistic chronicler of the Revolution (with paintings such as Death of Marat and Marie Antoinette on her Way to the Guillotine), then a neoclassicist icon (Leonidas at Thermopylae, Belisarius, Oath of the Horatii, The Intervention of the Sabine Women), and finally the Romantic court painter for Napoleon (Napoleon Crossing the Alps, Coronation of Napoleon, Napoleon in his Study). His paintings are probably the easiest to recognize among the whole pantheon of art in the post-Renaissance era.
- Also called the "Battle of the Nations", Leipzig (16-9 October 1813) was the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon (#170) during the Napoleonic Wars. Fought in Germany south of Berlin, it involved a Prussian, Austrian, Russian, and Swedish conglomerate army defeating a slightly smaller French and German allied Grande Armee.
- In Latin, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, it was the codification of the Copernican heliocentric doctrine (#s. 8 and 11 respectively) and Copernicus' magnum opus, published slightly before his death (1543) The Inquisition placed it on the Index of Forbidden Books.
- French Revolutionary currency issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120) after 1790, they were needed because the government was bankrupt. They persisted until 1803, when Napoleon (#170) introduced the franc as the new French currency.
5 True/False questions
Louis XVI → A religious philosophy prominent in England, France, and the U.S. in the 18th and 19th centuries, deism is the belief that supernatural events, revelations, and holy books are all false, and that God is revealed through reason and observation of the natural world. After creating the world God is a passive observer.
deism → A book on education written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (#68), Emile concerns the ideal system of educating a child, stating that children start out pure, but are corrupted by the company that they keep and the things they are taught. Argued that a child's education should follow their natural curiosity. It is still a widely read and taught tract by many educational authorities worldwide.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy → Published in 1748 and written by Montesquieu (#58), De l'esprit des lois is famous for its suggestion that a government be separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. This had a profound effect on Catherine II (#73) and the framers of the American Constitution.
Écrasez l'infame! → Voltaire
rococo → The Revolutionary government from 1795 to 1799, it had five directors sharing power instead of a legislative body. It was more conservative than those previous due to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160); it was propped up mainly on the bayonets of Napoleon (#170) and the Army.