5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
- Treaty of Campo Formio
- August 4 Decree
- Pugachev Rebellion
- Committee of Public Safety
- a Part of a series of "August Decrees" issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120), the members ended feudalism and the rights and privileges derived therefrom. It was issued in response to the Great Fear (#114).
- b Full title: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (English: An Anatomical Exercise of the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals). Written by Harvey (#35) in 1628, it stated that the heart pumped blood, which then went through the body before returning to the heart again, which pumped it to the lungs, then back to the heart, then out to the body again.
- c Essentially the ruling body of the Convention (#134), the Committee (established April 1793) was headed first by Danton (#142) and later Robespierre (#144). It continued war with the First Coalition (#131) successfully and initiated the Reign of Terror (#154) until its replacement by the Directory (#161).
- d Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.
- e A Cossack insurrection led by Yemelyan Pugachev, a pretender to the Russian throne, it was the largest peasant rebellion in Russian history and was directed primarily against the rule of Ekaterina II (#73). It was started in 1773 and enjoyed some success (including the capture of Kazan in '73) before being crushed and its leader executed in 1774 and '75.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Fought on June 18, 1815 between Napoleon (#170) and the Duke of Wellington (#187), it ended in a decisive Allied defensive victory and the end of the Hundred Days (#198).
- Often referring to the purely French concept, salons were Enlightenment-era (and earlier and later as well, but mainly in reference to the Enlightenment (#50)) gatherings of "socially stimulating" people at the abode of a host or hostess. Generally, there would be much conversation in an effort to increase knowledge or amuse each other. Political and social issues of the day were discussed here; the opinions of the upper classes could be gauged by visiting a few salons and listening to the discussions.
- A French playwright and feminist during the late 18th century, de Gouges (1748-93) wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123) in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man (#115), challenging the notion of male-female inequality. She was guillotined (#140) due to her anti-Committee (#151) activities.
- Formulated by Newton (#10), these state relationships between a body and the forces acting thereon. In quickie terms, from first to last: inertia, F = ma, and action-reaction.
- Published in 1748 and written by Montesquieu (#58), De l'esprit des lois is famous for its suggestion that a government be separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. This had a profound effect on Catherine II (#73) and the framers of the American Constitution.
5 True/False questions
Jacques-Louis David → Finance minister to Louis XVI (#99), Necker is known for his daughter (the famous Madame de Staël) and for his economic reforms in France, which involved dividing up the taille (#103, which had much popularity since everyone hated the taille) and assumption of some debt. The King tried to use him to calm the rebels, but he treated the assembly poorly, only requesting loans instead of enacting reforms, and was dismissed.
deism → A religious philosophy prominent in England, France, and the U.S. in the 18th and 19th centuries, deism is the belief that supernatural events, revelations, and holy books are all false, and that God is revealed through reason and observation of the natural world. After creating the world God is a passive observer.
Brunswick Manifesto → Occurring on 18 Brumaire VIII (9 November 1799), it was the overthrow of the Directory (#161) by Napoleon and the establishment of the Consulate (#172). It was heralded by the incident of 30 Prairial (18 June), when Abbe Sieyes (#108) ridded himself of the other four Directors.
Cult of Reason → Period during the Convention (#134) during which the Committee (#151) ruthlessly suppressed risings (real and perceived) against its power by judicious use of the guillotine (#140). It lasted from September 1793 to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160).
Jacques Necker → Finance minister to Louis XVI (#99), Necker is known for his daughter (the famous Madame de Staël) and for his economic reforms in France, which involved dividing up the taille (#103, which had much popularity since everyone hated the taille) and assumption of some debt. The King tried to use him to calm the rebels, but he treated the assembly poorly, only requesting loans instead of enacting reforms, and was dismissed.