5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- The Social Contract
- First Coalition
- Napoléon Bonaparte
- a Written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (#68), The Social Contract's central idea was that of a general will of the people, which makes itself known to the Sovereign-led government (Rousseau was very against the idea of a representative government, saying instead that the people should make the laws directly).
- b The first concerted effort by European powers to bring down the Revolution in France, it was formed in 1793 by Austria, Prussia, the UK, Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and Portugal. The participants would continue to fight until 1797, when Bonaparte (#170) signed the Treaty of Campo Formio (#163).
- c One of the Great Captains of History and leader of France from 1799 to 1814 (with 100 days in 1815), first as First Consul (#172), then as Emperor, Napoleon (1769-1821) fought the Napoleonic Wars (1800-15). He attempted to bring French rule to all of Europe but was frustrated by the various British-led coalitions against him.
- d Statement that "everything is God" or that "God is everything".
- e A group of 18th century economists who believed that the entire wealth of nations was derived from agriculture, it was the first really well-developed economic school of thought, and came directly before classical economics, the school of Adam Smith (who published his Wealth of Nations in 1776).
5 Multiple choice questions
- philosophical/scientific doctrine, with heavy basis in Cartesian thought (#18), which questions the reliability of claims by subjecting them to rigorous testing and investigation. In philosophy, it is the idea never to make a truth claim (including the claim that truth is impossible which is itself a truth claim!). Ambrose Bierce and Voltaire (#43) were notable skeptics.
- The French government between October 1791 and September of the following year, it was largely ineffectual due to the King's (#99) vetoing of much of their legislation and was soon forced to give way to the Paris Commune (#137).
- Covering all of the 18th century in European philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment was marked by the application of Reason to all things, emboldened by Newton's (#10) new physics. The leaders of the Enlightenment considered themselves an intellectual elite, which would bring light to the world. It was a major factor in the American and French Revolutions, and ended with the accession of Napoleon as First Consul.
- Developer of a ranked election system (the Condorcet Method), the Marquis of Condorcet (1743 - 94) was a political thinker far ahead of his time (even if that time was the Enlightenment (#50)), who advocated a political system including equal rights for women and all races, a liberal economic system, free and equal public education, and a constitution. Known for his unyielding faith in the progress of society.
- An English pamphleteer and radical political thinker, Paine (1737 - 1809) helped foment the American Revolution through incendiary writing such as Common Sense, and outlined his egalitarian ideals in Rights of Man (in response to Burke's (#116) writings on the French Revolution). He was also a deist (#52), and supported those ideas in The Age of Reason.
5 True/False questions
Joseph II [Austria] → Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
Fourth Coalition → A cult of atheism, advocated by Hébert (#153) and his cronies, it reached its apex under the Terror (#154) and was eventually driven underground during the Thermidorian Reaction (#160) and nearly eradicated by Napoleon's Concordat (#173). It was mostly supported by the sans culottes (#147).
"enlightened" absolutism → Also called "enlightened despotism", this political philosophy differed from normal absolutism only in the degree to which the individual sovereigns adopted various ideas of the Enlightenment (#50). Examples: Josef II (#49), who embraced the idea of the social contract (#70) and Enlightenment music; Ekaterina II (#73), who was a patron of music and the arts and who adopted some of Montesquieu's ideas; and (among many others) Friedrich II, who although permitting serfdom viewed himself as not the State but its First Servant.
plebiscite → A book on education written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (#68), Emile concerns the ideal system of educating a child, stating that children start out pure, but are corrupted by the company that they keep and the things they are taught. Argued that a child's education should follow their natural curiosity. It is still a widely read and taught tract by many educational authorities worldwide.
Julie de Lespinasse → Term used for the general French conscription of the 1790s (officially initiated in August 1793), it provided upwards of 800,000 soldiers for the Revolutionary armies and was a major development in modern warfare, allowing huger and more massive armies to be fielded.