5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Blaise Pascal
- Law of Gravitation
- William Hogarth
- a A French Jansenist (#34) scientist (1623 - 62), who clarified the concepts of vacuums and pressure by expanding on Torricelli's work, and also made Pascal's wager (as you will remember from Zero last year) in favor of the existence of God. He was one of the greatest mathematicians of his time (which was full of excellent math people) and developed probability theory and projective geometry with Fermat.
- b Refers to a French aristocrat that fled France during the Revolution from 1789 onward, who viewed the Revolution as a temporary inconvenience and expected to return to France upon its end. They often led armies in the Vendee or to assist the Coalition armies elsewhere.
- c Essentially a feudal style tax paid by labor, it was abolished in ancien regime France (#80) in 1789 not long after the Revolution began.
- d Also formulated by Newton (#10) and published in Principia Mathematica (#12), it states that every single point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass along a line drawn between the two, the force of which is proportional to the two masses.
- e A English pioneer in sequential art (what would later be comics) (w00t), Hogarth (1697 - 74) was one of the first and best editorial cartoonists, doing what Swift (#86) and Fielding (#85) did with only words with pictures and words combined. He also painted the famous six painting sequence Marriage à-la-Mode.
5 Multiple choice questions
- French Revolutionary currency issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120) after 1790, they were needed because the government was bankrupt. They persisted until 1803, when Napoleon (#170) introduced the franc as the new French currency.
- A Cossack insurrection led by Yemelyan Pugachev, a pretender to the Russian throne, it was the largest peasant rebellion in Russian history and was directed primarily against the rule of Ekaterina II (#73). It was started in 1773 and enjoyed some success (including the capture of Kazan in '73) before being crushed and its leader executed in 1774 and '75.
- Also called the separation of powers, this is the political concept of division of a government into branches, each of which have some degree of control over the actions of the other ones, in order to prevent any one branch from becoming overwhelmingly powerful. This was first posited in Spirit of the Laws (#59) by Montesquieu (#58).
- A court instituted in Paris by the Convention (#134) between October 1793 and the Thermidorian Reaction (#160), the Tribunal was one of the main instruments of the Reign of Terror (#154) and had many people guillotined (#140).
- A French political thinker and social commentator, Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) articulated the theory of separation of powers in his works The Spirit of the Laws (#59) and Persian Letters. He is also famous for popularizing the term "Byzantine Empire" for the Eastern Roman Empire, and also for calling feudalism such.
5 True/False questions
Duke of Wellington → Comprised of Russia, the Ottomans, Austria, and Britain, these were parties that fought against first the Directory (#161) and later the Consulate (#172); after initial successes in 1799 under the old Russian general Suvorov, they were defeated in 1800 by Napoleon's (#170) victory at Marengo and that of Moreau at Hohenlinden. They fought from 1798 to 1801, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Luneville.
Sir Isaac Newton → One of the greatest mathematicians of all time (1643 - 1727), he wrote Principia Mathematica (#12; contains his Laws of Motion (#14) and his ideas on gravity), Opticks, and developed calculus at the same time as the German Leibniz.
John Wilkes -journalist, MP, and all-around radical, Wilkes (1727 → 97) was often at odds with the rest of Parliament, mainly for attacking the King and supporting Pitt the Elder; his enemies had him arrested several times. Think of him as the 18th century British version of Jon Stewart, but elected Senator and adulterous.
Écrasez l'infame! → Voltaire
Galileo Galilei → Italian early physicist, astronomer, and scientist (1564 - 1642) who came up with numerous concepts, including acceleration and developing Copernicus' (#8) heliocentric theory (#11), for which he was punished by the Inquisition. He was one of the first early great experimenters of the early/pre-Enlightenment (#50).