5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Abbé Sieyès
- Écrasez l'infame!
- René Descartes
- a Voltaire
- b An art form rising from the end of rococo (#87) dominance in the mid-18th century, neoclassicism was a return to the art canon; instead of pushing new boundaries, artists demonstrated complete mastery of the old forms. Often, Roman or Greek figures were depicted, and virtual copies of these figures (a little bit like the Renaissance...but only a little) was common, probably due to the re-emergence of the Roman idea of the res publica and the Socratic republic.
- c A great French political theorist and statesman, Abbé Sieyès (1748 - 1836) wrote What is the Third Estate? in 1789, which really fired up the soon-to-be Revolutionaries. He also helped instigate the Coup of 18 Brumaire (#168).
- d The most left-leaning of the Jacobins (#124) during the days of the Convention (#134), they were supported by the sans culottes (#147) and fought against Robespierre (#144), eventually aligning themselves with Hébert (#153).
- e Also known as Cartesius (1596 - 1650), he developed the Cartesian (or x-y) coordinate plane concept, wrote Discourse on Method (#20), and was the original rationalist thinker (regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy by many). He helped merge algebra and geometry in the pre-Newtonian days, and also believed that there was no divine guiding will, leading the universe to an end. Quotable Quote: Cogito, ergo sum. (#22; French: Je pense, donc je suis; English: I think, therefore I am.)
5 Multiple choice questions
- Fought on 21 October 1805 as part of the War of the Third Coalition (#176), it saw an outnumbered British fleet under Nelson (#164) attack and defeat a combined Franco-Spanish fleet off the southern coast of Spain. The significance: Napoleon (#170) would never have the chance or the ability to invade England again, and was forced to turn to Continental victories.
- The French civil code, established by Emperor Napoleon I (#170) in 1804, it was the first successful codification of law outside of the old Roman Empire. It notably prohibited ex post facto (or retroactive) laws and established the supremacy of the husband as compared to the wife (Note: only legally. Please don't hurt me.).
- Term used for the bishops and clergy who didn't accept the Civil Constitution (#127), they were mostly in western France and helped incite the uprisings in the Vendee (#148) against the various Revolutionary governments.
- Official title: Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge. Founded in 1660, it relied on experimentation rather than authority for proof and decision, with emphasis on replication of experiments.
- Enacted in fall 1793 by the Convention (#134), it allowed for the creation of Revolutionary Tribunals (#139) throughout France to eliminate Enemies of the Revolution. It initiated the Reign of Terror (#154).
5 True/False questions
National Convention → The first concerted effort by European powers to bring down the Revolution in France, it was formed in 1793 by Austria, Prussia, the UK, Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and Portugal. The participants would continue to fight until 1797, when Bonaparte (#170) signed the Treaty of Campo Formio (#163).
Fourth Coalition → Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon (#170) from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit (#181).
Constituent Assembly → Governing body of France during the summer of 1789, it was initially comprised of those members of the Estates General (#107) that took the Tennis Court Oath (#111). They later reformed as the Constituent Assembly (#120).
Jean Jacques Rousseau → An economist and statesman from France, Turgot (1727 - 81) was an intendant who wrote on the idea of free trade, saying that it was entirely beneficial to the state and the economy in general.
a priori → Fought on June 18, 1815 between Napoleon (#170) and the Duke of Wellington (#187), it ended in a decisive Allied defensive victory and the end of the Hundred Days (#198).