5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- cahiers de doléances
- Constituent Assembly
- Maria Winkelmann
- Legion of Honor
- geocentric theory
- a the idea that the Earth is at the center of the Universe (and more specifically, me on the Earth) and everything else orbits around it. Propagated by Hellenes and Ptolemy. Debunked by Copernicus (#8) and Galileo (#3) in the late 1500s and early 1600s, it was generally accepted as false by the end of the 17th century.
- b Basically a petition of grievances, each representative to the Estates General (#107) brought this from his constituency as what he wanted out of the session. Each of the Estates would develop their own cahier based on the will of the members, and then the whole Estates General would come up with a cahier general for presentation to the King.
- c A French medal, originally issued by Napoleon (#170), it was the first modern military order of merit and was meant to help replace knighthood and feudal institutions.
- d The French government between 1789 and 1791, it issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man (#115) and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (#127), and developed the Constitution of 1791 (#121), upon which it dissolved and was replaced by the Legislative Assembly (#130).
- e An early German astronomer (1670 - 1720), she discovered the comet of 1702. Her application to get into the Berlin Observatory was rejected on the basis that she hadn't gone to university (and she was a woman, so how could she help that?).
5 Multiple choice questions
- The moderates of the Jacobin Club (#124).
- One of the greatest mathematicians of all time (1643 - 1727), he wrote Principia Mathematica (#12; contains his Laws of Motion (#14) and his ideas on gravity), Opticks, and developed calculus at the same time as the German Leibniz.
- Essentially a feudal style tax paid by labor, it was abolished in ancien regime France (#80) in 1789 not long after the Revolution began.
- King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, he was the restored Bourbon King who initially tried to reverse the effects of the Revolution, and was unseated in the Hundred Days (#198). Later, he would prove a fairly moderate King until the 1820s, during which he would turn ultraconservative.
- Signed by Napoleon (#170), it reaffirmed the RCC as the official church and religion of France, and restored some Church property. However, the Church was still far outbalanced by Bonaparte's power.
5 True/False questions
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres → In Latin, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, it was the codification of the Copernican heliocentric doctrine (#s. 8 and 11 respectively) and Copernicus' magnum opus, published slightly before his death (1543) The Inquisition placed it on the Index of Forbidden Books.
Battle of Borodino → Also called the "Battle of the Nations", Leipzig (16-9 October 1813) was the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon (#170) during the Napoleonic Wars. Fought in Germany south of Berlin, it involved a Prussian, Austrian, Russian, and Swedish conglomerate army defeating a slightly smaller French and German allied Grande Armee.
Voltaire -Voltaire, named François-Marie Arouet (1694 → 1778), was a famous French skeptic (#42), satirist, and political thinker, and author of Candide (#44). He was known for his friendship with Frederick the Great, support of civil liberties, sharp wit, and many attacks on Church dogma.
Berlin Decree → Part of a series of "August Decrees" issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120), the members ended feudalism and the rights and privileges derived therefrom. It was issued in response to the Great Fear (#114).
English Royal Society → Formulated by Newton (#10), these state relationships between a body and the forces acting thereon. In quickie terms, from first to last: inertia, F = ma, and action-reaction.