5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Vindication of the Rights of Woman
- The Spirit of the Laws
- Thomas Paine
- Congress of Vienna
- Cartesian dualism
- a Descartes' (#18) idea that the mind was not a physical substance, and can exist apart from the body. This leads to the problem of "how does the mind affect the body?", which was explained variously by his disciples as either "through the intervention of God" or "through the soul" - the latter having to work through the pineal gland.
- b An English pamphleteer and radical political thinker, Paine (1737 - 1809) helped foment the American Revolution through incendiary writing such as Common Sense, and outlined his egalitarian ideals in Rights of Man (in response to Burke's (#116) writings on the French Revolution). He was also a deist (#52), and supported those ideas in The Age of Reason.
- c Lasting through 1814-5, it was a meeting by the various powers of Europe to decide what to do after the fall of Napoleon (#170). The Congress mainly featured the excellent French diplomat Talleyrand (#196) successfully fending off the Allied attempts to carve up French territory.
- d Written by Wollstonecraft (#118) in response to Emile (#69) and Declaration of the Rights of Woman (#123), it advocated equality between men and woman and equal education for boys and girls. Many feminists of the time distanced themselves from this work due to the author's personal controversy.
- e Published in 1748 and written by Montesquieu (#58), De l'esprit des lois is famous for its suggestion that a government be separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. This had a profound effect on Catherine II (#73) and the framers of the American Constitution.
5 Multiple choice questions
- The Revolutionary government from 1795 to 1799, it had five directors sharing power instead of a legislative body. It was more conservative than those previous due to the Thermidorian Reaction (#160); it was propped up mainly on the bayonets of Napoleon (#170) and the Army.
- The opposite (almost, anyway) of rationalism (#28), empiricism's proponents were mainly found in England during the Scientific Revolution. It emphasized experimentation as opposed to reason as the basis for Truth.
- Published by the Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Prussian and allied forces, in July 1792 in Coblenz, it stated the official aims of the First Coalition, including its goal of reinstating the absolute monarchy. It was intended to threaten the French public into submission; like most of those kinds of things, it had the opposite effect, and kicked off the War of the First Coalition (#131).
- Finance minister to Louis XVI (#99), Necker is known for his daughter (the famous Madame de Staël) and for his economic reforms in France, which involved dividing up the taille (#103, which had much popularity since everyone hated the taille) and assumption of some debt. The King tried to use him to calm the rebels, but he treated the assembly poorly, only requesting loans instead of enacting reforms, and was dismissed.
- Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.
5 True/False questions
pantheism → Statement that "everything is God" or that "God is everything".
lycées → A region in western France south of Brittany, it was the site of several anti-Revolutionary uprisings from 1793-6 that claimed as many as a million lives.
Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité! → Rallying cry of the French Revolutionaries; literally translated "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" into English.
relativism → philosophical/scientific doctrine, with heavy basis in Cartesian thought (#18), which questions the reliability of claims by subjecting them to rigorous testing and investigation. In philosophy, it is the idea never to make a truth claim (including the claim that truth is impossible which is itself a truth claim!). Ambrose Bierce and Voltaire (#43) were notable skeptics.
deism → A book on education written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (#68), Emile concerns the ideal system of educating a child, stating that children start out pure, but are corrupted by the company that they keep and the things they are taught. Argued that a child's education should follow their natural curiosity. It is still a widely read and taught tract by many educational authorities worldwide.