5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Joseph II [Austria]
- Law of Gravitation
- Baron de Montesquieu
- a Statement that "everything is God" or that "God is everything".
- b Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
- c A French political thinker and social commentator, Montesquieu (1689 - 1755) articulated the theory of separation of powers in his works The Spirit of the Laws (#59) and Persian Letters. He is also famous for popularizing the term "Byzantine Empire" for the Eastern Roman Empire, and also for calling feudalism such.
- d Often referring to the purely French concept, salons were Enlightenment-era (and earlier and later as well, but mainly in reference to the Enlightenment (#50)) gatherings of "socially stimulating" people at the abode of a host or hostess. Generally, there would be much conversation in an effort to increase knowledge or amuse each other. Political and social issues of the day were discussed here; the opinions of the upper classes could be gauged by visiting a few salons and listening to the discussions.
- e Also formulated by Newton (#10) and published in Principia Mathematica (#12), it states that every single point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass along a line drawn between the two, the force of which is proportional to the two masses.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Written in 1792 following the "Battle" of Valmy, La Marseillaise is and was the national anthem of France. Napoleon (#170) banned it during the First Empire.
- Issued by the Constituent Assembly (#120) in 1790, it completed the destruction of the monastic orders in France, and confiscated the Church lands in France.
- A French medal, originally issued by Napoleon (#170), it was the first modern military order of merit and was meant to help replace knighthood and feudal institutions.
- Full title: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (English: An Anatomical Exercise of the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals). Written by Harvey (#35) in 1628, it stated that the heart pumped blood, which then went through the body before returning to the heart again, which pumped it to the lungs, then back to the heart, then out to the body again.
5 True/False questions
David Hume → A religious philosophy prominent in England, France, and the U.S. in the 18th and 19th centuries, deism is the belief that supernatural events, revelations, and holy books are all false, and that God is revealed through reason and observation of the natural world. After creating the world God is a passive observer.
Tycho Brahe → Danish astronomer (1546-1601) who came up with the fusion of geocentric and heliocentric views in his Tychonian System, wherein the Sun orbits the Earth, but everything else orbits the Sun. Important for more accurate charting of the night scky. His pupil was Kepler (#15)
Cogito, ergo sum! → Quotable Quote of René Descartes (#18), it simply means "I think, therefore I am." Laid out in his book Discourse on Method.
John Wilkes -journalist, MP, and all-around radical, Wilkes (1727 → 97) was often at odds with the rest of Parliament, mainly for attacking the King and supporting Pitt the Elder; his enemies had him arrested several times. Think of him as the 18th century British version of Jon Stewart, but elected Senator and adulterous.
Republic of Virtue → Name of a speech given by Robespierre (#144) in early 1794, it laid out his idea that terror must be used in defense of democracy.