5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Orders in Council
- François-Noël Babeuf
- David Hume
- On Crimes and Punishment
- Jacques Turgot
- a The British response to the Milan Decree (#183), it was in effect permission for the Royal Navy to blockade French and Continental ports. This would have the indirect effect of helping cause the War of 1812.
- b Written by the Marquis de Beccaria (#96), On Crimes and Punishment (1764) argued against the death penalty and advocated an overhaul of criminal law. It was the first major criminological work.
- c An economist and statesman from France, Turgot (1727 - 81) was an intendant who wrote on the idea of free trade, saying that it was entirely beneficial to the state and the economy in general.
- d A Revolutionary agitator and journalist, Babeuf (1760-97) had ideas that can be best described as "socialist" or "communist". He was executed by the Directory (#161) for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals.
- e Hume (1711 - 76) was an important historian of Britain (he wrote a History of Great Britain that stayed the standard text until that of Macaulay later on); also a radical empiricist (#33) who was generally in philosophical opposition to Germany's Kant (#56). His philosophy, typified in his many, many essays, generally tended toward the skeptic (#42) and naturalist sides.
5 Multiple choice questions
- A French medal, originally issued by Napoleon (#170), it was the first modern military order of merit and was meant to help replace knighthood and feudal institutions.
- Literally "the culture of the people", pop culture is whatever cultural elements are most popular among the population, mainly using the most popular media (honestly, do you think that modern popular culture could consist of Linear B woodcuts?) and an established lingua franca (these days, English is probably closest).
- The final "Revolutionary" government from 1799 to 1804, it was in reality a dictatorship dominated by Bonaparte (#170); it won the War of the Second Coalition (#169).
- Maria Theresa's son and successor on the Austrian and Imperial throne, Josef (1741 - 90, r. 1780 - 90) was one of the so-called "enlightened monarchs" (more pejoratively: enlightened despots). He traveled all over Europe, and initiated the partitions of Poland in a private meeting with Frederick. He issued the Edict of Tolerance (#48) and tried to initiate other reforms, but was foiled by Kaunitz and other Austrian nobles.
- Often a Roman Catholic (or Orthodox to a lesser extent) celebration, carnivals generally happen in the weeks before Lent, combining elements of a circus and a parade. Examples are the Latin American Carnival, the French Mardi Gras, English Shrove Tuesday, and German Fasching.
5 True/False questions
Continental System → Napoleon's (#170) attempt at making economic war on Britain, it was supposed to be, in effect, an embargo of Britain by Europe, as he could not win naval victory outright. Many of his wars following 1807 were fought to enforce the System.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy → Published in 1748 and written by Montesquieu (#58), De l'esprit des lois is famous for its suggestion that a government be separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. This had a profound effect on Catherine II (#73) and the framers of the American Constitution.
Plain → The moderates of the Jacobin Club (#124).
Law of Gravitation → Comprised of Russia, the Ottomans, Austria, and Britain, these were parties that fought against first the Directory (#161) and later the Consulate (#172); after initial successes in 1799 under the old Russian general Suvorov, they were defeated in 1800 by Napoleon's (#170) victory at Marengo and that of Moreau at Hohenlinden. They fought from 1798 to 1801, and the war was ended by the Treaty of Luneville.
utilitarianism → A weapon used to execute by decapitation, it was the main instrument of the Reign of Terror (#154) and stayed the main instrument of execution in France until the 1970s.