5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Fourth Coalition
- non-juring [refractory] clergy
- Thomas Paine
- a A religious philosophy prominent in England, France, and the U.S. in the 18th and 19th centuries, deism is the belief that supernatural events, revelations, and holy books are all false, and that God is revealed through reason and observation of the natural world. After creating the world God is a passive observer.
- b A prison for political prisoners in Paris, it was stormed by a crowd of bread rioters on 14 July 1789, signifying that the power of Louis XVI was irrelevant compared to the power of the sans culottes (#147).
- c An English pamphleteer and radical political thinker, Paine (1737 - 1809) helped foment the American Revolution through incendiary writing such as Common Sense, and outlined his egalitarian ideals in Rights of Man (in response to Burke's (#116) writings on the French Revolution). He was also a deist (#52), and supported those ideas in The Age of Reason.
- d Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon (#170) from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit (#181).
- e Term used for the bishops and clergy who didn't accept the Civil Constitution (#127), they were mostly in western France and helped incite the uprisings in the Vendee (#148) against the various Revolutionary governments.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Often a Roman Catholic (or Orthodox to a lesser extent) celebration, carnivals generally happen in the weeks before Lent, combining elements of a circus and a parade. Examples are the Latin American Carnival, the French Mardi Gras, English Shrove Tuesday, and German Fasching.
- laying the foundation for modern science. Also remembered as the source for cogito, ergo sum! (#22) Full title: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason in the Search for Truth in the Sciences.
- A French medal, originally issued by Napoleon (#170), it was the first modern military order of merit and was meant to help replace knighthood and feudal institutions.
- The poorest members of the Third Estate (#107), so called because they didn't wear knee breeches like the aristocracy, instead wearing full-length pantaloons. They supported the most radical left-wing French politicians during the Revolutionary governments, and had significant muscle inside Paris itself.
- An emphasis on reason as the way to truth, with major parts including a priori (#24) and proponents including Descartes (#18), Spinoza (#21), and Leibniz. It was more popular on the European Continent; in Britain, empiricism (#33) reigned.
5 True/False questions
pantheism → Statement that "everything is God" or that "God is everything".
Treaty of Campo Formio → Negotiated by Napoleon (#170) directly with Austria as a result of his victories in Italy of 1796-7 (Rivoli being the most recent), it ended the War of the First Coalition (#131) with only Britain left opposing France. Many Austrian territories were ceded to France or spun off as pro-Revolutionary governments, especially in Italy.
Emile → A book on education written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (#68), Emile concerns the ideal system of educating a child, stating that children start out pure, but are corrupted by the company that they keep and the things they are taught. Argued that a child's education should follow their natural curiosity. It is still a widely read and taught tract by many educational authorities worldwide.
Age of Enlightenment → Covering all of the 18th century in European philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment was marked by the application of Reason to all things, emboldened by Newton's (#10) new physics. The leaders of the Enlightenment considered themselves an intellectual elite, which would bring light to the world. It was a major factor in the American and French Revolutions, and ended with the accession of Napoleon as First Consul.
Charter of Nobility → Issued by Catherine II (#73) in 1785, it reaffirmed the various powers of the Russian nobility, including the ability to petition needs to authorities including the Senate and even the Tsarina herself.