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29 terms

Anthropology Chapter 1

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anthropology
the comparative study of human societies and cultures
holistic/holism
In anthropology an approach that considers culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of human society
society
A group of people who depend on one another for survival or well being as well as the relationships among such people, including their status and roles
culture
The learned behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups. The primary means by which humans adapt to their enviornments. The way of life characteristic of a particular human society
cultural anthropology
the study of human thought, meaning, and behavior that is learned rather than genetically transmitted and that is typical of groups of people
ethnohistory
description of the cultural past based on written records, interviews, and archaeology
linguistic anthropology
a branch of linguistics concerned with understanding language and its relation to culture
historical linguistics
study relationships among languages to better understand the histories and migrations of those who speak them
archaeology
the subdiscipline of anthropology that focuses on the reconstruction of past cultures based on their material remains
prehistoric
societies for which we have no usable written records
artifact
any object made or modified by human beings. Generally used to refer to objects made by past culture
features
artifacts that cannot easily be moved such as ruins
urban archaeology
the archaeological investigation of current day cities
cultural resource management
the protection and management of archaeological. archival, and architectural resources
biological anthropology
the subdiscipline of anthropology that studies people from a biological perspective focusing primarily on aspects of humankind that are genetically inherited. It includes osteology, nutrition, demography, epidemology, and primatology
paleoanthropology
the subdiscipline of anthropology concerned with tracing the evolution of human kind in the fossil record
human variation
the subdiscipline of anthropology concerned with mapping and explaining physical differences among modern human groups
primate
member of a biological order of mammals that includes human beings apes& monkeys as well as prosimians
applied anthropology
the application of anthropology to the solution of human problems
indigenous peoples
groups of people who have occupied a region for a long time and are recognized by other groups as its original inhabitants. often minorities with little influence
medical anthropology
the study of illness and health across cultures. The application an ethnogrpahic perspectives to the provision of health care services
forensic anthropology
the application of biological anthro to the identification of skelatilized or badly decomposed human remains
ethnocentrism
judging other cultures from the perspective of ones own culture. The notion that ones own culture is better than any other
anomie
a situation where social or moral norms are confused or entirely absent: often caused by rapid social change
racism
the belief that some human populations are superior to others because of inherited, genetically transmitted characteristics
biopsychological equality
the notion that all human beings have the same biological and mental capabilities
cultural relativism
the notion that a chulture should not be judged or evaluated according to the values of another culture. They must be analyzed with reference to their own histories and culture traits understood in terms of the cultural whole
emic perspective
examining society using concepts, categories, and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture
etic perspective
examining society using concept categories and rules derivied from science, and outsiders perspective, which produces analyzes that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful