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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Terms in this set (144)
Before the arrival of Europeans, Great Basin and Western Plain Indians:
Responded to a lack of resources by developing mobile lifestyles
Pre-Columbian Southwest Indians were most noted for which environmental transformation practice?
Fifteenth- and sixteenth century Spanish exploration and conquest created racially mixed culture known as:
Which of the following livestock introduced by the Spanish had the greatest impact on Great Plains Indian settlement patterns?
The encomienda system primarily relied on labor from:
What was the most important 15ht-16th century goal of Spanish conquest and exploration as revealed by the conquistadors?
Increased wealth of Spain
Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century French and Dutch colonial relationships with American Indians were based primarily on:
Trade alliances centering on the fur trade
Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century English colonization differed from the Spanish, Dutch, and French because England:
eventually established colonies based primarily on agriculture
Which of the following groups of colonial settlers largely avoided intermarriage or cross-racial sexual unions with native populations?
The Atlantic slave trade grew dramatically in the 18th century because of:
the difficulty of effectively enslaving native peoples
Which of the following was the largest slave rebellion in the British North American colonies prior to the Revolutionary war?
Who, as governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, claimed that Puritans should establish a "City upon a hill"?
Which region of the British North American colonies, nicknamed the "bread colonies", was the most ethnically, religiously, and demographically diverse?
The middle colonies
Which of the following regions had the longest growing seasons, primarily cultivated rice and indigo, and had a majority African slave population?
The southernmost Atlantic colonies
During the 17th century, which of the following was the primary cash crop of the Chesapeake colonies?
Which 18th-century religious movement int he British clones most clearly signified growing religious independence, diversity, and uniqueness?
The Great Awakening
Which mid-Atlantic British colony was noted for its promotion of religious freedom, good relations with local Indians, and Quaker idealism?
As Jamestown's leader, Captain John Smith:
made the colonist work in order to eat
The headright system adopted for the Virginia colony consisted of:
giving fifty acres of land to anyone who would transport himself to the colony and fifty more for any servants he might bring
The English Puritans:
opposed Catholic elements in the Church of England
All of the following are true of the Pilgrims EXCEPT that they:
were a sect of radical Catholics
Roger Williams founded Rhode Island after he:
had been banished from Massachusetts for his religious opinions
The Major cause of King Philip's War was:
Indian resentment over forced conversions to Christianity
By the early eighteenth century, the English colonies in North America:
were the most populous and prosperous not he continent
Throughout the colonies, husbands expected from their wives:
submission to their authority
All of the following were true of the status of women in the colonial time period EXCEPT:
enjoyed the right to vote in local elections int he middle Atlantic colonies
New England's most important commodity for export was:
John Peter Zenger's trial in 1735 established:
that truth is a defense in libel case
encouraged the idea that God was like a master clockmaker who planned the universe and set in motion
Enlightenment thinkers such as Isaac Newton stressed the:
ability if reason to discover the laws of the universe
Traveling evangelist did all for he following EXCEPT:
stressed education as part of one's conversion experience
At the time Europeans arrived in North America, Indians:
enjoyed a vast trading network across the continent
Food crops exported from the Americas:
allowed a population explosion in Europe
After the arrival of Europeans, the greatest number of Indians died as a result of:
The government of Spain in the New World differed from that of the later British colonies in that:
every detail of colonial administration was closely regulated by the Spanish government
Forse became so valuable in North America that they:
intensified intertribal competition and warfare
Which of the following food did Europeans introduce to the New World?
Historians describe the colonial system of the European "mother country" regulating trade of it'd manufactured goods in exchange for raw materials from its North American colonies, as:
In the British colonies between 1607 and 1750 political communities based on English models, economic ties, and legal structures lead to:
Anglicization in the British colonies
With the exception of the Domination of New England, British government oversight of the North American colonies prior to 1750 was:
laissez-faire, or hands-off
Colonial intellectual resistance to 18th-century British imperial control was often based on:
In the decades before the American Revolution, the English colonial westward movement:
introduced firearms and horses to Indian tribes on the frontier
The Proclamation of 1763 prohibiting colonial migration west of the Appalachian mountains resulted all of the following EXCEPT:
Parliament's decision to punish the colonies for their refusal to pay taxes
Which of the following was a primary reason why Indian tribes attempted to form advantages alliances with other tribes and European countries during the mid-and late 1700s?
They wanted to limit the movement of white settlers
Which of the following set of historical events is in the correct chronological order?
Stamp Act, Committees of Correspondence, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts
Which of the following contributed the LEAST to the growing colonial sentiment toward independence int he 1770s?
Frustration over the British government's refusal to send troops to protect the colonies from Indians attacks
Despite England's superior military, industrialized economy, and larger population, the colonist were ultimately able to succeed in their war for independence because they possessed all of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following is properly matched?
Jay's Treaty- the British promised to abandon their first in the Northwest, which averted a possible war with England
The XYZ affair, Sedition Act, and Convention of 1800:
demonstrated the challenges America faced a result of the French Revolution and the spread of its ideals
The Alien and Sedition Acts did all of the following EXCEPT:
ease popular fears of an imminent war with France by quieting public criticism and penning direct megatons with the French government
Thomas Paine's Common Sense was:
a widely read criticism of continued British rule of th colonies
the Articles of Confederation suffered from all of the following weaknesses EXCEPT:
prohibiting amendements to the original articles
Which of the following was an outcome of the American Revolution?
It inspired a number of other independence movements
Which of the following exposed the inability of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation to put down civil unrest and prompted calls for a new, stronger central government?
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 considered by many to be the greatest success of the Articles of Confederation Congress part from the Declaration Of Independence, did all of the following EXCEPT:
set aside large reservations for Indian tribes in the area, guaranteeing a generation of mostly peaceful relations with American Indians
in the 1790s, the United States successfully negotiated free navigation of the Mississippi River with:
The Democratic-Rebuplicans favored:
The Navigation Acts specified "enumerated" goods that:
could be shipped only to England or its colonies
During the period of salutary neglect,
the British government took less of a role in governing the American colonies
John Locke's contract theory of government argued that:
men have certain rights in the state of nature, including the right to life , liberty, and property.
Americans secured official French support with a tremendous victory in October 1777 at the Battle of:
Abigail Adam's appeal to her husband John to "remember the Ladies"
was basically ignored
An ongoing source of American tension toward the British was:
British forts along the Canadian border
One serious economic problem under the Articles of Confederation was:
the differing tariff policies of the states
The Convention's most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:
Madison's Virginia Plan:
would create a two-house Congress
The Constitution adressed slavery by:
stating that the African slave trade could not be banned before 1808
In regard to state debts, Hamilton proposed that:
the federal government take them over
Hamilton's plan to fund the national debt at its full face value would most benefit:
Madison and Jefferson objected to the national bank primarily because:
they believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
The emergence of political parties:
reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton
The Whiskey Rebellion resulted in:
the sending of a massive army to western Pennsylvania
The Alien Act in 1789:
was aimed especially at French and Irish Republicans
The Wilmot Proviso:
called for any new American lands acquired from Mexico to be free territory
American interests and priorities with regard to Asia in the 1840s and 1850s primarily centered around:
trade and commerce
The American or "Know-Nothing"Party of 1850s:
sought to limit the rights of immigrants
Which of the following was NOT a cause of increased American settlement of the West during and after the Civil War?
Sharp increases in urbane food prices
As whites moved westward into Indian territories int he last half of the 19th century,
The american Indians themselves were often blamed for the conflict that ensued.
In terms of politics, the 1850s were noteworthy because they witnessed the:
dissolution of national political parties due to sectional concerns
As a result of the publication on "Uncle Tom's Cabin" in 1852:
abolitionism gained ground in the North
What became the most controversial element of the Compromise of 1850?
The Fugitive Slave Act
In the 19th century, Southerners used all of the following arguments to justify slavery EXCEPT:
the international slave trade was highly profitable for all regions of the country
Which of the following was NOT a result or consequences of the "Dred Scott" decision of 1857?
The Fugitive Slave Act was repealed
The Republican Party campaign platform of 1860 called for:
the reconstruction of slavery from new territories
At the outset of war, which of the following was the greatest advantage possessed by the Confederacy?
Superior military leadership
All of the following were major events of the Union strategy for victory in the Civil War EXCEPT:
impressing ex-slaves into the Union army
The primary focus of women's reform movements int eh fifty years after the Civil War was a struggle for:
The 13th amendment:
The idea of popular sovereignty:
would allow people int he territories to decide whether or not to permit slavery
During Reconstruction, Southern Blacks typically did which of the following?
tilled farms as renters and sharecroppers
All of the following elements of the Radical Republican program were implement during Reconstruction EXCEPT:
Provision of 40 acres to each freedman
Which of the following principles was established by the Dred Scott decision?
National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories
Stephen Douglas' proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act:
could allow slavery in Kansas and Nebraska through popular sovereignty
Why did the Whig party collapse?
The strain of the Kansas-Nebraska Act pushed northern and southern members toward joining different parties
How did the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act impact the settlement of Kansas?
popular sovereignty encouraged violence-proned supporters and opponents of slavery to flood
The Lincoln-Douglas debates:
bolstered Lincoln's presidential prospects in 1860
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was intended to
provoke a slave insurrection
How did the Emancipation Proclamation change the nature of the Civil War?
It transformed the Civil War from a war to restore the Union to a struggle over slavery
Emancipation of the Slaves after the Civil War had what impact on the South?
It left South's labor system in disarray
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given:
medical and legal assistance from the freedman's Bureau
The "Black Codes" enacted by southern legislatures:
tried to restore key elements of slavery and restrict African-American rights
The Radical Republicans understood that most essential to maintaining Republican control of the federal government was:
the right of ex-slaves to vote
Why did Radical Republicans want to disenfranchise former Confederates?
to keep them from electing Democrats eager to restore the old southern ruling class power
Andrew Johnson was:
impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
The primary objective of Klu Klux Klan was:
oppressing blacks and white Republicans
Why did southern Democrats agree to the Compromise of 1850?
It ensured the last federal troops would be withdrawn from the South
What happened after Reconstruction?
The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure to restored white rule, Jim Crow laws, and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction?
the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
Which of the following early American political parties most vocally championed the "common man," welcomed immigrants, and benefitted from the expansion of voting rights to most males?
In which of the following areas were political debates LEAST affected by regional and sectional differences in the first half of the 19th century?
The expansion of white male suffrage
In a famous 1837 speech, South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun defended slavery as a
Which person or group most strongly advocated sending enslaved blacks to Africa as an answer to the problem of slavery?
The American Colonization Society
During the 1840s and 1850s, which set of immigrant groups arrived in unprecedented numbers, resulting in a nativist backlash in popular culture?
Irish and Germans
Who was the famous black abolitionist who wrote an autobiography of his/her former life as a slave?
Which of the following was NOT a result of antebellum technological innovations such as textile machinery, the steam engine, the telegraph, and the use of interchangeable parts?
The heightened isolation rural Americans
Which of the following statements best described the Lowell system?
It involved using mill girls from rural areas to work in textile factories
Which of the following developments LEAST strengthened the increasing economic linkage of the North and the Midwest during the Antebellum era?
The spread of plantation agriculture
Which of the following connected the Great Lakes to the East Coast and fueled the economic rise of New York City
The Erie Canal
The majority of Irish immigrants to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s settled
in cities along the east coast
Which of the following movements, glorifying women's role as homemakers, resulted in part from the increasing separation between home and the workplace brought on by industrialization
the Cult of Domesticity
Opposition to the proposed American System of internal improvements was a result of
Supreme Court decisions questioning its constitutionality
Which of the following was NOT an example of Manifest Destiny
Demilitarizing the Great Lakes
Which of the following correctly characterizes the War of 1812
The United States was able to reassert of sovereignty over its existing western lands and remove Britain's military presence
Which of the following treaties is correctly matched with its description?
Adams-Onis Treaty-acquired Florida from Spain
Which of the following best describes the Monroe Doctrine
It was an American pronouncement to European countries not to interfere with independent nations in the Western Hemisphere
The most divisive issue in regards to western expansion during the antebellum era was
the extension of slavery
All of the following are true of the Tariff of 1828 EXCEPT it
was ultimately ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
What did the Hartford Convention, the nullification crisis, and some Marshall court decisions all have in common?
They illustrated attempts by the federal government to assert greater control over the states and the resistance those attempts created
The Indian Removal Act of 1830
led to the infamous Trail of Tears
The increase of slavery in the new Southwest during the antebellum era
created new tensions over the spread of slavery
The Shawnee leader, Tecumseh,
worked to unite Indians in a vast confederacy
The Missouri Compromise stipulated that in the rest of the Louisiana purchase north of 36/30 that:
slavery would be excluded
The rapid expansion of the cotton belt in the South
ensured that the region became more dependent on enslaved black workers
mixed African and Christian elements
A typical form of resistance pursued by slaves entailed
malingering, feigning illness, and sabotage
Why might women be drawn to camp meetings
They provided women with opportunities to participate as equals in public rituals
Which statement best describes the Transcendental Club that had its first meeting in the 1830s?
a loosely knit group of diverse, intellectually curious individualists who met to discuss philosophy, religion, and literature
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the Supreme Court
declared a federal law unconstitutional and established the principal of judicial review
The chief advocate for the program for economic development called the American System was
The one thing that united all members of the new Whig party was opposition to
William Lloyd Garrison
demanded immediate emancipation of slaves
The phrase "fifty-four forty or fight!" referred to
How did the Mexican- American War ultimately deepen sectional divisions in the United States?
The new territories acquired fueled a violent debate over the extension of slavery into them
The settlement of the West was accelerated by Cyrus McCormick's invention of the:
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