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20 terms

Honors Chemistry - Chapter 1, Sections 4-6

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Quantitative
Associated with numbers; many properties of matter are this
Metric system
Units used for scientific measurement; mili-, centi-, kilo-, etc.
SI units
Specific metric units used for scientific measurement
Meter
SI base unit of length; abbreviates to m
Mass
Amount of material in an object
Kilogram
SI base unit of mass; abbreviates to kg
Temperature
Measure of the hotness or coldness of an object
Kelvin scale
SI temperature scale; abbreviates to K
Celsius scale
Everyday scale of temperature in most countries; commonly used in science
Liter
Metric unit used to measure the volume of an object
Density
Property of matter widely used to characterize a substance; measured by mass/volume
Exact numbers
Numbers whose values are known exactly
Inexact numbers
Numbers whose values have some uncertainty; numbers obtained by measurement are always this
Precision
Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
Accuracy
Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value
Standard deviation
How much the individual measurements differ from the average
Significant figures
All digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one
Dimensional analysis
Approach to problem-solving in which units are carried through all calculations; units are multiplied together, divided into each other, or "canceled"
Conversion factor
Fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units; key to dimensional analysis
Basic formula for conversion factor
Given unit ⋅ (desired unit/given unit) = desired unit