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20 terms

Quantitative

Associated with numbers; many properties of matter are this

Metric system

Units used for scientific measurement; mili-, centi-, kilo-, etc.

SI units

Specific metric units used for scientific measurement

Meter

SI base unit of length; abbreviates to m

Mass

Amount of material in an object

Kilogram

SI base unit of mass; abbreviates to kg

Temperature

Measure of the hotness or coldness of an object

Kelvin scale

SI temperature scale; abbreviates to K

Celsius scale

Everyday scale of temperature in most countries; commonly used in science

Liter

Metric unit used to measure the volume of an object

Density

Property of matter widely used to characterize a substance; measured by mass/volume

Exact numbers

Numbers whose values are known exactly

Inexact numbers

Numbers whose values have some uncertainty; numbers obtained by measurement are always this

Precision

Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another

Accuracy

Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value

Standard deviation

How much the individual measurements differ from the average

Significant figures

All digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one

Dimensional analysis

Approach to problem-solving in which units are carried through all calculations; units are multiplied together, divided into each other, or "canceled"

Conversion factor

Fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different units; key to dimensional analysis

Basic formula for conversion factor

Given unit ⋅ (desired unit/given unit) = desired unit