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Intellectual Disability and ASD
Terms in this set (19)
What are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by?
developmental deficits that produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning
What is the diagnostic criteria for Intellectual Disability?
- a disorder w/ onset during the developmental period that includes both intellectual and adaptive functioning deficits in conceptual, social, and practical domains, following 3 criteria must be met
A. Deficits in intellectual functions, such as reasoning, problem-solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, academic learning, and learning from experience, confirmed by both clinical assessment and individualized, standardized intelligence testing
B. Deficits in adaptive functioning that result in failure to meet developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility. Without ongoing support, the adaptive deficits limit functioning in one or more activities of daily life, such as communication, social participation, and independent living, across multiple environments, such as home, school, work, and community
C. Onset of intellectual and adaptive deficits during the developmental period
What are the specifiers for Intellectual Disability?
- specifiers are based on adaptive functioning
What are the 3 domains of adaptive functioning in the context of Intellectual Disability?
- conceptual domain
- social domain
- practical domain
What does the conceptual (academic) domain involve?
competence in memory, language, reading, writing, math reasoning, acquisition of practical knowledge, problem solving, and judgment in novel situations, etc.
What does the social domain involve?
awareness of others' thoughts, feelings, and experiences; empathy; interpersonal communication skills; friendship abilities; and social judgment; etc.
What does the practical domain involve?
learning and self-management across life settings, including personal care, job responsibilities, money management, recreation, self-management of behavior, and school and work task organization, etc.
What is the prevalence rate of Intellectual Disability?
- 1.8 - 3%
- severe intellectual disability is 6/1000
What are some risk and prognostic factors of Intellectual Disability?
- prenatal: genetic syndromes, inborn errors of metabolism, brain malformations, maternal diseases, and environmental influences
- perinatal: variety of labor and delivery-related events leading to neonatal encephalopathy
- postnatal: hypoxic ischemic injury, traumatic brain injury, infections, demyelinating disorders, seizure disorders, severe and chronic social deprivation, and toxic metabolic syndromes and intoxications
What are some gender-related diagnostic issues for Intellectual Disability?
- males more likely than females to be diagnosed with both mild and severe forms of intellectual disability
- sex-linked genetic factors and male vulnerability to brain insult may account for some of the gender differences
What conditions are comorbid with Intellectual Disability?
- 3-4x higher rate of having other conditions
- depressive and bipolar disorders
- anxiety disorders
- stereotypic movement disorder
- impulse-control disorders
- major neurocognitive disorder
What are the diagnostic criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (ranging from abnormal social approach and failure of reciprocal conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions)
2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction (ranging from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication)
3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (ranging from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers)
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, activities, as manifested by at least 2 of the following, currently or by history
1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior
3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus
4. Hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment
C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not be become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life)
D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning
E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability or global developmental delay
What are the condition specifiers for ASD?
- with or without accompanying intellectual impairment
- with or without accompanying language impairment
- associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor
- associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder
- with catatonia
What are the severity specifiers for ASD?
- requiring very substantial support
- requiring substantial support
- requiring support
What are the domains for severity in ASD?
- social communication
- restricted, repetitive behaviors
What is the prevalence rate of ASD?
What are the risk and prognostic factors for ASD?
- environmental: higher parental age at birth, low birth weight, or fetal exposure to toxins
- genetic and physiological: heritability, genetic mutations, polygenic loci
What are some gender-related diagnostic issues for ASD?
- 4:1 (males : females)
- females tend to be more likely to show accompanying intellectual disability
- females tend to have less severe restrictive/repetitive behaviors
What conditions are comorbid with ASD?
- 31% of children also have a cognitive impairment (e.g., developmental delay/ID)
- medical conditions (e.g., epilepsy, sleep problems)
- anxiety disorders
- avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder
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