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Terms in this set (15)

Transmitted mouth-mouth

Caused by virus

early symptoms:

Fever and flu-like symptoms.
Genital itching, burning, or discomfort.
Vaginal discharge in women.
Swollen lymph nodes.
A feeling of pressure in the abdomen.

Males more likely to show symptoms.

If it is left untreated:
Herpes can be painful, but it generally does not cause serious health problems like other STDs can. Without treatment, you might continue to have regular outbreaks, or they could only happen rarely. Some people naturally stop getting outbreaks after a while.

Herpes infection occurs in less than 1% of births, but it can cause severe illness in newborns, such as:
Blindness.
Deafness.
Seizures.
Serious infections, such as viral meningitis.
Recurrent sores on the skin, eyes, genitals, or mouth.
organ damage, including to the liver, lungs, and heart.

Diagnosis: Viral culture. This test involves taking a tissue sample or scraping of the sores for examination in the laboratory.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. PCRis used to copy your DNA from a sample of your blood, tissue from a sore or spinal fluid. The DNA can then be tested to establish the presence of HSV and determine which type of HSV you have.
Blood test. This test analyzes a sample of your blood for the presence of HSV antibodies to detect a past herpes infection.

treatment:
There's no cure for genital herpes. Treatment with prescription antiviral medications may:
Help sores heal sooner during an initial outbreak
Lessen the severity and duration of symptoms in recurrent outbreaks
Reduce the frequency of recurrence
Minimize the chance of transmitting the herpes virus to another
Antiviral medications used for genital herpes include:
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
Caused by virus (HPV)

spreads through skin to skin contact

Early symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of genital warts include:
Small, flesh-colored, brown or pink swellings in your genital area
A cauliflower-like shape caused by several warts close together
Itching or discomfort in your genital area
Bleeding with intercourse
Genital warts can be so small and flat as to be invisible. Rarely, however, genital warts can multiply into large clusters, in someone with a supressed immune system

Who shows and who doesn't:
More statistics on Woman. And, it is not proven that woman show it more than men. They show it about the same.

If left untreated, genital warts may grow bigger and multiply. They may go away on their own without treatment, but this doesn't mean they should be ignored because when genital warts are present they can be spread to other people.

For woman with pregnancy:
For the vast majority of women, genital warts don't cause any problems during pregnancy. Also, the risk of passing the infection on to their baby is very low. If you have genital warts or any strain of HPV and are still concerned about the possible effects on your pregnancy, talk to your prenatal care provider.

Diagnosis:
Pap test
HPV test

Treatment:
Medications
Genital wart treatments that can be applied directly to your skin include:
Imiquimod (Aldara, Zyclara). This cream appears to boost your immune system's ability to fight genital warts. Avoid sexual contact while the cream is on your skin. It might weaken condoms and diaphragms and irritate your partner's skin.
One possible side effect is skin redness. Other side effects might include blisters, body aches or pain, a cough, rashes, and fatigue.
Podophyllin and podofilox (Condylox). Podophyllin is a plant-based resin that destroys genital wart tissue. Your doctor applies this solution. Podofilox contains the same active compound, but you can apply it at home.
Never apply podofilox internally. Additionally, this medication isn't recommended for use during pregnancy. Side effects can include mild skin irritation, sores or pain.
Trichloroacetic acid. This chemical treatment burns off genital warts, and can be used for internal warts. Side effects can include mild skin irritation, sores or pain.
Sinecatechins (Veregen). This cream is used for treatment of external genital warts and warts in or around the anal canal. Side effects, such as reddening of the skin, itching or burning, and pain, are often mild.
Don't try to treat genital warts with over-the-counter wart removers. These medications aren't intended for use in the genital area.
Surgery
You might need surgery to remove larger warts, warts that don't respond to medications or, if you're pregnant, warts that your baby can be exposed to during delivery. Surgical options include:
Freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy). Freezing works by causing a blister to form around your wart. As your skin heals, the lesions slough off, allowing new skin to appear. You might need to repeat the treatment. The main side effects include pain and swelling.
Electrocautery. This procedure uses an electrical current to burn off warts. You might have some pain and swelling after the procedure.
Surgical excision. Your doctor might use special tools to cut off warts. You'll need local or general anesthesia for this treatment, and you might have pain afterward.
Laser treatments. This approach, which uses an intense beam of light, can be expensive and is usually reserved for extensive and tough-to-treat warts. Side effects can include scarring and pain.
Caused by infection of bacteria (Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium)

Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Gonorrhea can also be spread perinatally from mother to baby during childbirth.

Gonorrhea symptoms
Thick, cloudy or bloody discharge from the penis or vagina.
Pain or burning sensation when urinating.
Heavy menstrual bleeding or bleeding between periods.
Painful, swollen testicles.
Painful bowel movements.
Anal itching.

Men usually show more symptoms than woman and approximately 10 to 15 percent of men are asymptomatic

Untreated gonorrhea can lead to major complications, such as:
Infertility in women. Gonorrhea can spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can result in scarring of the tubes, greater risk of pregnancy complications and infertility. PID requires immediate treatment.
Infertility in men. Gonorrhea can cause a small, coiled tube in the rear portion of the testicles where the sperm ducts are located (epididymis) to become inflamed (epididymitis). Untreated epididymitis can lead to infertility.
Infection that spreads to the joints and other areas of your body. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea can spread through the bloodstream and infect other parts of your body, including your joints. Fever, rash, skin sores, joint pain, swelling and stiffness are possible results.
Increased risk of HIV/AIDS. Having gonorrhea makes you more susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that leads to AIDS. People who have both gonorrhea and HIV are able to pass both diseases more readily to their partners.
Complications in babies. Babies who contract gonorrhea from their mothers during birth can develop blindness, sores on the scalp and infections.

Untreated gonococcal infection in pregnancy has been linked to miscarriages, premature birth and low birth weight, premature rupture of membranes, and chorioamnionitis. Gonorrhea can also infect an infant during delivery as the infant passes through the birth canal. If untreated, infants can develop eye infections.

Diagnosed:
Urogenital gonorrhea can be diagnosed by testing urine, urethral (for men), or endocervical or vaginal (for women) specimens using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) 19. It can also be diagnosed using gonorrhea culture, which requires endocervical or urethral swab specimens.

Tested:
urine can be used to test for gonorrhea. However, if you have had oral and/or anal sex, swabs may be used to collect samples from your throat and/or rectum. In some cases, a swab may be used to collect a sample from a man's urethra (urine canal) or a woman's cervix (opening to the womb).

Treatment:
Antibiotic
Caused by a virus. (HAV)

Transmission:
spread from close, personal contact with an infected person, such as through certain types of sexual contact (like oral-anal sex), caring for someone who is ill, or using drugs with others. Hepatitis A is very contagious, and people can even spread the virus before they feel sick.

Early symptoms:
Symptoms of hepatitis A range from mild to severe and can include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice (a yellowing of the eyes and skin).

Men are affected more than woman

Possible Complications of Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A can cause more serious health problems. Keep in mind all that these are rare and more likely to happen in people who are over 50.
Cholestatic hepatitis. Occuring in about 5% of patients, this means the bile in your liver is obstructed on its way to the gallbladder. It can cause changes in your blood and result in jaundice fever and weightloss
Relapsing hepatitus. More common in the elderly, The symptoms of liver inflamation such as jaundice, reoccur periodlically but are not chronic.
Autoimmune hepatitis. this triggers your own body to attack the liver. If left untreated, it could result in chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and ultimately liver failure.
Liver failure. Happens in less than 1% and this usually affects people who are:OlderAlready have another type of liver diseaseHave a weakened immune system
If your doctor feels your liver isn't working well, they may admit you to the hospital to keep an eye on how well your liver is working. In severe cases, you might need to have a liver transplant.
During pregnancy:
Hepatitis A virus infection has also been reported to be associated with other gestational complications such as increased premature uterine contractions, placental abruption, and premature rupture of membranes. The markers for a more aggressive course of the disease are fever and hypoalbuminemia.

Diagnosis:
Blood test. Usually from vein in arm.

Treatment:
None.
Rest. Many people with hepatitis A infection feel tired and sick and have less energy.
Manage nausea. Nausea can make it difficult to eat. Try snacking throughout the day rather than eating full meals. To get enough calories, eat more high-calorie foods. For instance, drink fruit juice or milk rather than water. Drinking plenty of fluids is important to prevent dehydration if vomiting occurs.
Avoid alcohol and use medications with care. Your liver may have difficulty processing medications and alcohol. If you have hepatitis, don't drink alcohol. It can cause more liver damage. Talk to your doctor about all the medications you take, including over-the-counter drugs.
Caused by virus (HBV)

Transmission:
when blood, semen, or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact; sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment; or from mother to baby at birth.

Symptoms of acute hepatitis B can include:
Fever.
Fatigue.
Loss of appetite.
Nausea.
Vomiting.
Abdominal pain.
Dark urine.
Clay-colored bowel movements.

Develops more often in males than females

If left untreated:
A chronic hepatitis B infection can go undetected for years - even decades in many cases. The longer a hepatitis B infection is left untreated, the more susceptible you are to developing severe scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver cancer.

Pregnancy:
A hepatitis B virus infection should not cause any problems for you or your unborn baby during your pregnancy if you take the correct precautions. What are the complications of hepatitis B in pregnancy?
There is increased maternal and perinatal death associated with the Hepatitis B virus infection during pregnancy. Placenta abruption, preterm birth, gestational hypertension, and fetal growth restriction have been associated with chronic HBV during pregnancy.

Diagnosis:
Blood tests. Blood tests can detect signs of the hepatitis B virus in your body and tell your doctor whether it's acute or chronic. A simple blood test can also determine if you're immune to the condition.
Liver ultrasound. A special ultrasound called transient elastography can show the amount of liver damage.
Liver biopsy. Your doctor might remove a small sample of your liver for testing (liver biopsy) to check for liver damage. During this test, your doctor inserts a thin needle through your skin and into your liver and removes a tissue sample for laboratory analysis.

Treatment:
Treatment to prevent hepatitis B infection after exposure
If you know you've been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and aren't sure if you've been vaccinated, call your doctor immediately. An injection of immunoglobulin (an antibody) given within 12 hours of exposure to the virus may help protect you from getting sick with hepatitis B. Because this treatment only provides short-term protection, you also should get the hepatitis B vaccine at the same time, if you never received it.
Treatment for acute hepatitis B infection
If your doctor determines your hepatitis B infection is acute — meaning it is short-lived and will go away on its own — you may not need treatment. Instead, your doctor might recommend rest, proper nutrition and plenty of fluids while your body fights the infection. In severe cases, antiviral drugs or a hospital stay is needed to prevent complications.
Treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection
Most people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection need treatment for the rest of their lives. Treatment helps reduce the risk of liver disease and prevents you from passing the infection to others. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B may include:
Antiviral medications. Several antiviral medications — including entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka) — can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. These drugs are taken by mouth. Talk to your doctor about which medication might be right for you.
Interferon injections. Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A) is a man-made version of a substance produced by the body to fight infection. It's used mainly for young people with hepatitis B who wish to avoid long-term treatment or women who might want to get pregnant within a few years, after completing a finite course of therapy. Interferon should not be used during pregnancy. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and depression.
Liver transplant. If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplanted livers come from deceased donors, though a small number come from living donors who donate a portion of their livers.
Viral infection (HCV)

Transmission:
usually spread when someone comes into contact with blood from an infected person. This can happen through: ►Sharing drug-injection equipment. Today, most people become infected with hepatitis C by sharing needles, syringes, or any other equipment used to prepare and inject drugs.

Early signs and symptoms:
Belly pain
Clay-colored poop
Dark urine
Fatigue
Fever
Jaundice (yellow tint to your skin or eyes)
Joint pain
Poor appetite
Nausea
Vomiting

Affects men more than woman

If untreated:
Chronic hepatitis C can be a lifelong infection if left untreated. Chronic hepatitis C can cause serious health problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and even death.

What happens if you have hep C while pregnant?
An uncomplicated HCV infection typically will not have a significant effect on pregnancy. Most people with hepatitis C have uneventful pregnancies with no complications as a result of the infection

Diagnosis:
Screening for hepatitis C
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults ages 18 to 79 years be screened for hepatitis C, even those without symptoms or known liver disease. Screening for HCV is especially important if you're at high risk of exposure, including:
Anyone who has ever injected or inhaled illicit drugs
Anyone who has abnormal liver function test results with no identified cause
Babies born to mothers with hepatitis C
Health care and emergency workers who have been exposed to blood or accidental needle sticks
People with hemophilia who were treated with clotting factors before 1987
People who have undergone long-term hemodialysis treatments
People who received blood transfusions or organ transplants before 1992
Sexual partners of anyone diagnosed with hepatitis C infection
People with HIV infection
Anyone born from 1945 to 1965
Anyone who has been in prison
Other blood tests
If an initial blood test shows that you have hepatitis C, additional blood tests will:
Measure the quantity of the hepatitis C virus in your blood (viral load)
Identify the genotype of the virus
Tests for liver damage
Doctors typically use one or more of the following tests to assess liver damage in chronic hepatitis C.
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). A noninvasive alternative to a liver biopsy (see below), MRE combines magnetic resonance imaging technology with patterns formed by sound waves bouncing off the liver to create a visual map showing gradients of stiffness throughout the liver. Stiff liver tissue indicates the presence of scarring of the liver (fibrosis) as a result of chronic hepatitis C.
Transient elastography. Another noninvasive test, transient elastography is a type of ultrasound that transmits vibrations into the liver and measures the speed of their dispersal through liver tissue to estimate its stiffness.
Liver biopsy. Typically done using ultrasound guidance, this test involves inserting a thin needle through the abdominal wall to remove a small sample of liver tissue for laboratory testing.
Blood tests. A series of blood tests can indicate the extent of fibrosis in your liver.

Treatment:
Antiviral medications
Hepatitis C infection is treated with antiviral medications intended to clear the virus from your body. The goal of treatment is to have no hepatitis C virus detected in your body at least 12 weeks after you complete treatment.
Researchers have recently made significant advances in treatment for hepatitis C using new, "direct-acting" antiviral medications, sometimes in combination with existing ones. As a result, people experience better outcomes, fewer side effects and shorter treatment times — some as short as eight weeks. The choice of medications and length of treatment depend on the hepatitis C genotype, presence of existing liver damage, other medical conditions and prior treatments.
Due to the pace of research, recommendations for medications and treatment regimens are changing rapidly. It is therefore best to discuss your treatment options with a specialist.
Throughout treatment your care team will monitor your response to medications.
Liver transplantation
If you have developed serious complications from chronic hepatitis C infection, liver transplantation may be an option. During liver transplantation, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplanted livers come from deceased donors, though a small number come from living donors who donate a portion of their livers.
In most cases, a liver transplant alone doesn't cure hepatitis C. The infection is likely to return, requiring treatment with antiviral medication to prevent damage to the transplanted liver. Several studies have demonstrated that new, direct-acting antiviral medication regimens are effective at curing post-transplant hepatitis C. At the same time, treatment with direct-acting antivirals can be achieved in appropriately selected patients before liver transplantation.
Vaccinations
Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, your doctor will likely recommend that you receive vaccines against the hepatitis A and B viruses. These are separate viruses that also can cause liver damage and complicate the course of chronic hepatitis C.
Disease (caused by infection with parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis)

Transmission:
transmitted through vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected individual.

Early symptoms:
Itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals; Discomfort with urination; A change in their vaginal discharge (i.e., thin discharge or increased volume) that can be clear, white, yellowish, or greenish with an unusual fishy smell.

Men or woman show more?
More common in woman.

Left untreated, infection can spread to other organs, such as the prostate, and can also potentially contribute to male infertility. In some women, symptoms may not appear for up to 28 days after infection, while in others symptoms arise almost immediately.

Pregnant people with trichomoniasis are at higher risk of their water breaking — membranes rupturing — too early. Pregnant people are also at higher risk of delivering their babies prematurely, or before 37 weeks. Babies of mothers with trichomoniasis are more likely to have a birth weight of less than 5 1/2 pounds.

can be diagnosed by looking at a sample of vaginal fluid for women or urine for men under a microscope. If the parasite can be seen under the microscope, no further tests are needed. If this test isn't conclusive, tests called rapid antigen tests and nucleic acid amplification may be used.

Treatment
The most common treatment for trichomoniasis, even for pregnant women, is to swallow one megadose of either metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax). In some cases, your doctor might recommend a lower dose of metronidazole two times a day for seven days.
Both you and your partner need treatment. And you need to avoid sexual intercourse until the infection is cured, which takes about a week.
Don't drink alcohol for 24 hours after taking metronidazole or 72 hours after taking tinidazole, because it can cause severe nausea and vomiting.
Your doctor will likely want to retest you for trichomoniasis from two weeks to three months after treatment to be sure you haven't been reinfected.
Untreated, trichomoniasis can last for months to years.
Caused by bacteria (Treponema pallidum)

Transmission:
transmitted from person to person by direct contact with a syphilitic sore, known as a chancre. Chancres can occur on or around the external genitals, in the vagina, around the anus , or in the rectum, or in or around the mouth. Transmission of syphilis can occur during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.

Early symptoms:
Syphilis develops in stages, and symptoms vary with each stage. But the stages may overlap, and symptoms don't always occur in the same order. You may be infected with syphilis without noticing any symptoms for years.
Primary syphilis
The first sign of syphilis is a small sore, called a chancre (SHANG-kur). The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered your body. While most people infected with syphilis develop only one chancre, some people develop several of them.
The chancre usually develops about three weeks after exposure. Many people who have syphilis don't notice the chancre because it's usually painless, and it may be hidden within the vagina or rectum. The chancre will heal on its own within three to six weeks.
Secondary syphilis
Within a few weeks of the original chancre healing, you may experience a rash that begins on your trunk but eventually covers your entire body — even the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet.
This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wartlike sores in your mouth or genital area. Some people also experience hair loss, muscle aches, a fever, a sore throat and swollen lymph nodes. These signs and symptoms may disappear within a few weeks or repeatedly come and go for as long as a year.
Latent syphilis
If you aren't treated for syphilis, the disease moves from the secondary stage to the hidden (latent) stage, when you have no symptoms. The latent stage can last for years. Signs and symptoms may never return, or the disease may progress to the third (tertiary) stage.
Tertiary syphilis
About 15% to 30% of people infected with syphilis who don't get treatment will develop complications known as tertiary syphilis. In the late stage, the disease may damage the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints. These problems may occur many years after the original, untreated infection.
Neurosyphilis
At any stage, syphilis can spread and, among other damage, cause damage to the brain and nervous system and the eye.
Congenital syphilis
Babies born to women who have syphilis can become infected through the placenta or during birth. Most newborns with congenital syphilis have no symptoms, although some experience a rash on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet.
Later signs and symptoms may include deafness, teeth deformities and saddle nose — where the bridge of the nose collapses.
However, babies born with syphilis can also be born too early, may die in the womb before birth or can die after birth.

More common in men than woman

Eventually, untreated syphilis can lead to damage to the brain, eyes, heart, nerves, bones, joints, and liver. You could also become paralyzed, blind, demented, or lose feeling in the body.

Syphilis during pregnancy can cause problems for your baby, like miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth and death after birth.

Diagnosis
Tests
Syphilis can be diagnosed by testing samples of:
Blood. Blood tests can confirm the presence of antibodies that the body produces to fight infection. The antibodies to the syphilis-causing bacteria remain in your body for years, so the test can be used to determine a current or past infection.
Cerebrospinal fluid. If it's suspected that you have nervous system complications of syphilis, your doctor may also suggest collecting a sample of cerebrospinal fluid through a lumbar puncture.

Treatment
Medication
When diagnosed and treated in its early stages, syphilis is easy to cure. The preferred treatment at all stages is penicillin, an antibiotic medication that can kill the organism that causes syphilis. If you're allergic to penicillin, your doctor may suggest another antibiotic or recommend penicillin desensitization.
The recommended treatment for primary, secondary or early-stage latent syphilis — which refers to an infection within the last year — is a single injection of penicillin. If you've had syphilis for longer than a year, you may need additional doses.
Penicillin is the only recommended treatment for pregnant women with syphilis. Women who are allergic to penicillin can undergo a desensitization process that may allow them to take penicillin.
Even if you're treated for syphilis during your pregnancy, your newborn child should be tested for congenital syphilis and if infected, receive antibiotic treatment.
The first day you receive treatment, you may experience what's known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Signs and symptoms include a fever, chills, nausea, achy pain and a headache. This reaction usually doesn't last more than one day.
Caused by bacteria

Transmission:
Shigella is found in the intestinal tract of infected people, and is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the bacteria. It can also be spread by direct contact with feces (even with microscopic amounts) from an infected person.

When to Contact Your Doctor
Fever.
Bloody diarrhea.
Severe stomach cramping or tenderness.
Dehydrated.
Feel very sick.

If left untreated:
the colon may rupture and cause peritonitis, a life-threatening condition requiring emergency surgery. The other relatively rare complication that can occur with a Shigella infection is the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).

Episodes of shigellosis in pregnant women may trigger uterine contractions and changes to the cervix, potentially resulting in miscarriage or preterm birth.

Infection is diagnosed when a laboratory identifies Shigella in the stool (poop) of an ill person. The test could be a culture that isolates the bacteria or a rapid diagnostic test that detects genetic material of the bacteria.

Treatment
Contact your healthcare provider if you or one of your family members have bloody diarrhea or severe stomach cramping or tenderness, especially if you also have fever or feel very sick. Tell your healthcare provider if you have other medical conditions or a weakened immune system, such as from HIV infection or chemotherapy treatment, because you may be more likely to become severely ill.
People with Shigella infection should drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
People with bloody diarrhea should not use anti-diarrheal medication, such as loperamide (Imodium) or diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil). These medications may make symptoms worse.
Antibiotics can shorten the time you have fever and diarrhea by about 2 days.
Ciprofloxacin and azithromycin are two recommended oral antibiotics.
Caused by bacteria

Transmission:
spread by prolonged skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

Early symptoms:
Itching, mainly at night: Itching is the most common symptom. ...
Rash: Many people get the scabies rash. ...
Sores: Scratching the itchy rash can cause sores. ...
Thick crusts on the skin: Crusts form when a person develops a severe type of scabies called crusted scabies.

Men affected more than woman

Scabies infestation may be complicated by bacterial infection, leading to the development of skin sores that, in turn, may lead to the development of more serious consequences such as septicaemia, heart disease and chronic kidney disease.

If you contract scabies during pregnancy, rest assured that infestation will not affect your fetus. Talk to your doctor about your options as there are no recommended natural treatments for scabies.

Diagnosis of a scabies infestation usually is made based upon the customary appearance and distribution of the the rash and the presence of burrows.
Whenever possible, the diagnosis of scabies should be confirmed by identifying the mite or mite eggs or fecal matter (scybala). This can be done by carefully removing the mite from the end of its burrow using the tip of a needle or by obtaining a skin scraping to examine under a microscope for mites, eggs, or mite fecal matter (scybala). However, a person can still be infested even if mites, eggs, or fecal matter cannot be found; fewer then 10-15 mites may be present on an infested person who is otherwise healthy.

Treatment:
Medications Used to Treat Scabies
Products used to treat scabies are called scabicides because they kill scabies mites; some also kill mite eggs. Scabicides used to treat human scabies are available only with a doctor's prescription. No "over-the-counter" (non-prescription) products have been tested and approved to treat scabies. The instructions contained in the box or printed on the label always should be followed carefully. Always contact a doctor or pharmacist if unsure how to use a particular medicine.
Scabicide lotion or cream should be applied to all areas of the body from the neck down to the feet and toes. In addition, when treating infants and young children, scabicide lotion or cream also should be applied to their entire head and neck because scabies can affect their face, scalp, and neck, as well as the rest of their body. Only permethrin or sulfur ointment may be used in infants. The lotion or cream should be applied to a clean body and left on for the recommended time before washing it off. Clean clothing should be worn after treatment. Both sexual and close personal contacts who have had direct prolonged skin-to-skin contact with an infested person within the preceding month should be examined and treated. All persons should be treated at the same time to prevent reinfestation.
The instructions contained in the box or printed on the label always should be followed carefully. Always contact a doctor or pharmacist if unsure how to use a particular medicine.
Because the symptoms of scabies are due to a hypersensitivity reaction (allergy) to mites and their feces (scybala), itching still may continue for several weeks after treatment even if all the mites and eggs are killed. If itching still is present more than 2 to 4 weeks after treatment or if new burrows or pimple-like rash lesions continue to appear, retreatment may be necessary.
Skin sores that become infected should be treated with an appropriate antibiotic prescribed by a doctor.
caused by a parasite, itching and can cause skin damage

Transmission:
typically transmitted through intimate contact, including sexual intercourse.

Lots of itching in your genital area.
Super small bugs in your pubic hair. You can usually see pubic lice by looking closely, or you may need to use a magnifying glass. Pubic lice are tan or whitish-gray, and they look like tiny crabs. They get darker when they're full of blood.
Crab eggs (called nits) on the bottom part of your pubic hairs. Nits are really small and can be hard to see. They're oval and yellow, white, or pearly. Nits usually come in clumps.
Dark or bluish spots on the skin where pubic lice are living. These spots come from the crabs' bites.
Feeling feverish, run-down, or irritable.

What happens if pubic lice is left untreated?
If left untreated, you can develop infections from scratching. It can also cause your skin to change color and become scaly and scarred.

More common in men than woman

None. But, should inform provider that you are pregnant when treated for crabs.

diagnosed by finding a "crab" louse or egg (nit) on hair in the pubic region or, less commonly, elsewhere on the body (eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, armpit, perianal area, groin, trunk, scalp). Pubic lice may be difficult to find because there may be only a few.

Treatment:
A lice-killing lotion containing 1% permethrin or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide can be used to treat pubic ("crab") lice. These products are available over-the-counter without a prescription at a local drug store or pharmacy.
Causative bacteria of urethritis in men, cervicitis and PID in women
- "Mgen" - sexually transmitted and increasing
- Colonizes ciliated epithelium of urogenital cells
- Difficult to detect, can be asymptomatic, spreadable STI

transmitted by genital-to-genital contact including vaginal and anal contact and oral-to-genital contact.

Symptoms:
Vaginal itching.
Burning with urination.
Pain during intercourse.
Bleeding between periods or after sex.
With BV, a fishy odor after sex and changes in vaginal discharge.

More common in men than woman

preterm birth and miscarriages in pregnant women. The role of Mycoplasma genitalium in adverse pregnancy outcomes is still ill-defined. Several studies have pointed to a conclusion that this species is independently associated with preterm birth, albeit no other syndromes have been correlated to the presence of this mycoplasma.

How is Mycoplasma genitalium diagnosed?
NAAT is the preferred method for detection of M. genitalium from either a first void urine sample (males), a vulvovaginal swab (females) or a rectal swab. If available, additional testing for macrolide resistance can be used to guide the appropriate antimicrobial treatment

M. genitalium lacks a cell wall, and thus antibiotics targeting cell-wall biosynthesis (e.g., ß-lactams including penicillins and cephalosporins) are ineffective against this organism. Because of the high rates of macrolide resistance with treatment failures (707) and efficient selection of additional resistance, a 1-g dose of azithromycin should not be used.
Two-stage therapy approaches, ideally using resistance-guided therapy, are recommended for treatment. Resistance-guided therapy has demonstrated cure rates of >90% and should be used whenever possible (759,963); however, it requires access to macrolide-resistance testing. As part of this approach, doxycycline is provided as initial empiric therapy, which reduces the organism load and facilitates organism clearance, followed by macrolide-sensitive M. genitalium infections treated with high-dose azithromycin; macrolide-resistant infections are treated with moxifloxacin (964,965).
Recommended Regimens if M. genitalium Resistance Testing is Available
If macrolide sensitive: Doxycycline 100 mg orally 2 times/day for 7 days, followed by azithromycin 1 g orally initial dose, followed by 500 mg orally once daily for 3 additional days (2.5 g total)
If macrolide resistant: Doxycycline 100 mg orally 2 times/day for 7 days followed by moxifloxacin 400 mg orally once daily for 7 days
Recommended Regimens if M. genitalium Resistance Testing is Not Available
If M. genitalium is detected by an FDA-cleared NAAT: Doxycycline 100 mg orally 2 times/day for 7 days, followed by moxifloxacin 400 mg orally once daily for 7 days
Although the majority of M. genitalium strains are sensitive to moxifloxacin, resistance has been reported, and adverse side effects and cost should be considered with this regimen. In settings without access to resistance testing and when moxifloxacin cannot be used, an alternative regimen can be considered, based on limited data: doxycycline 100 mg orally 2 times/day for 7 days, followed by azithromycin (1 g orally on day 1 followed by 500 mg once daily for 3 days) and a test of cure 21 days after completion of therapy (963). Because of the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and high likelihood of treatment failure, this regimen should be used only when a test of cure is possible, and no other alternatives exist. If symptomatic treatment failure or a positive test of cure occurs after this regimen, expert consultation is recommended. Data are limited regarding use of minocycline in instances of treatment failure (966).
Recommended PID treatment regimens are not effective against M. genitalium. Initial empiric therapy for PID, which includes doxycycline 100 mg orally 2 times/day for 14 days, should be provided at the time of presentation for care. If M. genitalium is detected, a regimen of moxifloxacin 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days has been effective in eradicating the organism. Nevertheless, no data have been published that assess the benefits of testing women with PID for M. genitalium, and the importance of directing treatment against this organism is unknown.
caused by chlamydia.
sore is often unnoticed.
tx. with doxy. Caused by bacteria

spread through unprotected anal, oral or vaginal sexual contact, especially if there is trauma to the skin or mucous membranes.

Symptoms include:
Drainage through the skin from lymph nodes in the groin.
Painful bowel movements (tenesmus)
Small painless sore on the male genitals or in the female genital tract.
Swelling and redness of the skin in the groin area.
Swelling of the labia (in women)

More common in men than woman.

If left untreated:
Ulcers on the genitals, in the anus or in the rectum. Deformation of the vagina, urethra or rectum caused by chronic inflammation. Swelling of the genitals (penis, vulva, vagina) or the anus caused by obstruction of the lymphatic vessels.

LGV and pregnancy
In the event of a diagnosis of LGV during pregnancy, the risk of transmission from the mother to newborn is primarily during the passage through the birth canal during spontaneous vaginal delivery. Antibiotics available for use in the treatment of LGV are selected based on their safety profile during the different stages of pregnancy. Your physician will assist you in determining the best antibiotic for you.

Diagnosis:
ultimately depends on detecting C trachomatis- specific DNA, followed by genotyping to identify serovars L1, L2, or L3 found in LGV. Diagnosis is based primarily on clinical findings, with increasing evidence supporting the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for confirmation.

Treatment:
Antibiotics. For three weeks.