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Terms in this set (22)
extremely round, almost perfect, but it is slightly elliptical
Earth's orbit defines a two-dimensional plane which we call the ecliptic. It takes roughly 365 days for the Earth to go around the Sun once.
Imagine a circle with a figure of the sun inside there are four points on the circle the top earth is vernal equinox going right would be winter solstice, then autumnal equinox directly bellow vernal then summer solstice
surface - 290 K
interior - 4,000 K up to over 7,000 K
Most of the Earth surface, about 70%, is covered with water. The remaining 30% is made up of the seven continental landmasses. Underneath the water that fills the oceans, and the dirt and plants that cover the continents, the Earth's surface layer is made of rock
Earth's named features (2):
Mountains, valleys, and flat areas, the air is made up of different gases, mainly nitrogen and oxygen. The water includes oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, rain, snow and ice.
Earth's volcanic activity
Although most volcanic activity on Earth occurs at plate boundaries, there are some volcanically active spots that are in the middle of a tectonic plate. These areas are called hot spots. ... As the tectonic plates move above them, they leave a trail of volcanic activity, which forms island chains like Hawaii.
97% salt water, 3% fresh water
About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog.
Our planet's atmosphere is a mixture of gases, the most abundant of which are nitrogen (78 percent by volume), oxygen (21 percent), argon (0.9 percent), and carbon dioxide (0.03 percent). Water vapor is a variable part of the atmosphere, from 0.1 to 3 percent, depending on location and climate. The presence of a large amount of free oxygen makes our atmosphere unique in the solar system—Earth's oxygen is a direct consequence of the emergence of life on our planet.
In Earth's interior a thick mantle surrounds a smaller, two-part core. At the surface we have a relatively thin crust, comprising the solid continents and the seafloor, and the hydrosphere, comprising rivers, lakes, and the liquid oceans. An atmosphere of air lies just above the surface. At much greater altitudes a zone of charged particles trapped by our planet's magnetic field forms Earth's magnetosphere.
P waves and S waves travel through Earth's interior
Earth's Magnetic field
Magnetic lines of force from Earth's polar north and south, acting like a giant magnet, Generated by the motion of molten iron in Earth's core, the magnetic field protects our planet from cosmic radiation and from the charged particles emitted by our Sun. It also provides the basis for navigation with a compass.
Ocean tides on Earth are caused by the competing gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun on different parts of Earth
Convection currents play a role in the circulation of fluids. Convection currents are the result of differential heating. ... Inside Earth, the convection of mantle material is thought to cause the movement of the overriding crustal plates, resulting in events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
- Convection occurs whenever cool matter overlies warm matter. The resulting circulation currents are familiar to us as the winds in Earth's atmosphere, caused by the solar-heated ground. Over and over, hot air rises, cools, and falls back to Earth. Eventually, steady circulation patterns are established and maintained, provided that the source of heat (the Sun, in the case of Earth) remains intact.
Earth's tectonic plates
Convection currents in the upper mantle cause portions of Earth's crust—plates—to slide around on the surface. As the plates move and interact, they are responsible for volcanism, earthquakes, the formation of mountain ranges and ocean trenches, and the creation and destruction of oceans and continents.
Ozone is a gas made up of three oxygen atoms (O3). It occurs naturally in small (trace) amounts in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere). Ozone protects life on Earth from the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.Oct 18, 2018
As this moist, marine air cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets, and low clouds form Earth's clouds are in the troposphere
Earth's S and P waves
In P or compressional waves, the vibration of the rock is in the direction of propagation. P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
The Equator is the invisible line that runs around the center of the Earth at 0 degrees latitude. ... It is halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole, at 0 degrees latitude. An equator divides the planet into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere. The Earth is widest at its Equat
Mid-ocean ridges are geologically important because they occur along the kind of plate boundary where new ocean floor is created as the plates spread apart. Thus the mid-ocean ridge is also known as a "spreading center" or a "divergent plate boundary." The plates spread apart at rates of 1 cm to 20 cm per year.
Earth's Moon(s) and Features
Luna (Earth): causes tides on Earth due to gravity, was created due to Great Impact Theory, 12 men have walked on the moon
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it interacts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun. 90 degree angle
Earth's Moon origin
What is most widely accepted today is the giant-impact theory. It proposes that the Moon formed during a collision between the Earth and another small planet, about the size of Mars. The debris from this impact collected in an orbit around Earth to form the Moon.
Describe how scientists combine theory and observation to create models of Earth's interior. Give examples of some Earth properties that we actually observe and some that are derived purely from the models.
Earthquakes and seismic waves are observed on Earth's surface. These data are combined with models of how waves move through Earth's interior to construct a model of our planet's composition and physical state. We measure Earth's mass, radius, and surface composition directly. However, the composition and temperature of our planet's interior are inferred from models.
What happens when tectonic plates move?
When the plates move they collide or spread apart allowing the very hot molten material called lava to escape from the mantle. When collisions occur they produce mountains, deep underwater valleys called trenches, and volcanoes. ... The Earth is producing "new" crust where two plates are diverging or spreading apart.
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