38 terms

AP Psych Ch. 07 - Learning

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Learning
Relatively permanent change in an organism that occurs as a result of experiences in the environment
Conditioning
Systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
Reflex
Automatic behavior that occurs involuntarily in response to a stimulus and without prior learning and usually shows little variability from instance to instance
Classical Conditioning
Conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response; aka Pavlovian conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that normally produces a measurable involuntary response
Unconditioned Response
Unlearned or involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
Neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, begins to elicit a conditioned response
Conditioned Response
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Higher-order Conditioning
Process by which a neutral stimulus takes on conditioned properties through pairing with a conditioned stimulus
Extinction (classical conditioning)
The procedure of withholding the unconditioned stimulus and presenting the conditioned stimulus alone, which gradually reduces the probability of the conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
Stimulus Generalization
Process by which a conditioned response becomes associated with a stimulus that is similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination
Process by which an organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus and not to other stimuli
Operant Conditioning
Conditioning in which an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior;
Skinner Box
Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response
Shaping
Selective reinforcement of behaviors that gradually approach the desired response
Reinforcer
Any event that increases the probability of a recurrence of the response that preceded it
Positive Reinforcement
Presentation of a stimulus after a particular response in order to increase the likelihood that the response will recur
Negative Reinforcement
Removal of a stimulus after a particular response to increase the likelihood that the response will recur
Primary Reinforcer
Reinforcer that has survival value for an organism; this value does not have to be learned
Secondary Reinforcer
Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organism but that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior learned through coincidental association with reinforcement
Punishment
Process of presenting an undesirable or noxious stimulus, or removing a desirable stimulus, to decrease the probability that a preceding response will recur
Primary Punisher
Any stimulus or event that is naturally painful or unpleasant to an organism
Secondary Punisher
Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic negative value for an organism but acquires punishing qualities when linked with a primary punisher
Learned Helplessness
The behavior of giving up or not responding to punishment, exhibited by people or animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they have no control
Fixed-interval Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a specified interval of time, provided that the required response occurs at least once in the interval
Variable-interval Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after predetermined but varying amounts of time, provided that the required response occurs at least once after each interval
Fixed-ratio Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer(reward) is delivered after a specified number of responses has occurred
Variable-ratio Schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer (reward) is delivered after a predetermined but variable number of responses has occurred
Extinction (operant conditioning)
The process by which the probability of an organism's emitting a response is reduced when reinforcement no longer follows the response
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs in the absence of direct reinforcement and that is not necessarily demonstrated through observable behavior
Observational Learning Theory
Theory that suggests that organisms learn new responses by observing the behavior of a model and then imitating it; aka. Social learning theory
aversive conditioning
learning involving an unpleasant or harmful stimulus or reinforcer
Law of Effect
behaviors followed by pleasant consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by unpleasant consequences are weakened (Thorndike)
Premack principle
commonly occurring behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior
shaping
positively reinforcing closer and closer approximation of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior
token economy
operant training system that uses secondary reinforcers (tokens) to increase appropriate behavior; learners can exchange tokens for desired rewards
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