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FITT Principle

Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type

Gluteus Maximus

Primary muscle or muscle group responsible for the extension of the hip joint

Active Living

way of life in which physical activity is valued as an important part of daily living.

Intrinsic Motivation

motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.

Extrinsic Motivation

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment


Rest, Immobilize, Cold and Elevation


This is a tool important to use as a prescreening tool for all participants

Cardiovascular endurance

Ability of the lungs to take oxygen into the body, the ability of the heart to pump it through the blood vessels to the muscle cells, and the ability of the muscles to extract oxygen; also called aerobic fitness

VO2 Max

Maximum amount of oxygen that a person can use while working.

Muscular strength

Maximum tension that a muscle can exert in a single contraction

Muscular Endurance

Ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over a period of time


The range of motion around a joint or a group of joints and is specific to each joint


Decreases with age and inactivity; reduces the risk of injuries

Progressive Overload

Increasing the duration, or intensity of exercise, doing new exercises, or changing the pace of your exercise will allow you to do this to your muscles.


The type and degree of adaptation that the body makes depends on the type and amount of exercise performed

Principle of Ceiling Effect

While the body will continue to adapt in small ways to increasingly strenous levels of exercise, individuals will not continue to improve their fitness level indefinitely

Principle of Use-Disuse

After one stops exercising, the training effect will be lost at about 1/3 the rate at which it was gained

Principle of Adaptation

A bdy will respond to the type and amouint of physical demands placed upon it

The Rest Principle

During training, tissues are broken down. Training effect occurs when these tissues are replaced to a higher level during the rest period.


In this type of stretching, a stretch is held for 10 - 30 seconds

Stretch Relex

Protective mechanism of the muscles which works to prevent muscle pulls and tears called by ballistic stretching; Initial reflex of muscle is to contract or shorten.

Maximum Heart Rate

Calculated using the formula 220 - your age

Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion

Alternative to heart rate monitoring; simpler method for participants to use to describe effort

Talk Test

States that during cardiovascular exercise, if an individual cannot carry on a conversation they are working to hard


A vessel carrying blood from the heart to the tissues


Thin walled vessel forming part of the network which allows gas and nutrient exchange with the cells


Vessel carrying blood from the capillaries back to the heart


Fold of membrane which permits the flow of blood in one direction only

Right Atrium

Receives deoxygenated blood from the body

Right Ventricle

Contracts to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs

Left Atrium

Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs

Left Ventricle

Contracts to pump oxygenated blood to the body

Stroke Volume

Each time the heart beats, it ejects about 70mL of blood

Cardiac Output

Function of the number of times the heart beats per minute and the stroke volume


These arteries nourish the heart muscle with blood

Normal Blood Pressure

120 / 80 mmHg

Anatomical Position

Universally accepted position in which trunk is errect, arms at sides, palms forward, legs straight and feet turned slightly outwards


Tough gristle like substance that protects the bones in a joint from rubbinbg against one another


Formed when two or more bones meet


Fibrous cord of connective tissue that attaches a bone to a bone or other structure

Skeletal system

Framework of bones, gives body shape and support, protects organs and provides a system of levers for movement

Synovial Joint

Moveable joint that is surrounded by a tough protective capsule and bathed in lubricating fluid, normally providing free movement between the bones


Fibrous cord of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone


Layer of fibrous material separating or joining muscles


to the front of


to the rear of


Nearer the midline


Farther from the midline


A structure higher than another structure


A structure lower than another structure


Lying on back


Lying on front (face down)


Closer to the centre of the body (refering to the limbs)


Further away from the centre of the body (refering to the limbs)


Adjacent bones moving together decreasing the angle between them


Adjacent bones move apart increasing the angle between them


An extension movement that is continued beyond normal range of motion


A flexion movement that is continued beyond the normal range of motion


A body segment moves away from the midline of the body


A body segment moves toward the midline of the body

Horizontal Adduction

Movement across the chest to midline

Horizontal Abduction

Movement of the arm away from midline


A body part moves around its own long axis.


Top of the foot moving toward the shin

Plantar Flexion

Top of the foot moving away from the shin


Lifting the lateral boder of the foot


Lifting the medial border of the foot


Lateral rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face anteriorly


Medial rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face posteriorly


Movement of the scapula towards the midline


Movement of the scapula away from the midtline


Scapula moving down


Moving to a superior position; moving up

Lateral flexion

Head or torso bends to the side


A body part moves in a full circular path.

Type I Slow Twitch

Type of muscle fibre used for low-tension, submaximal exercise; good endurance and use oxygen well

Type II Fast Twitch

Type of muscle fibre that is generally larger and develops tension faster; more powerful but tire quickly

Isometric Contraction

Static contraction that involves no joint movement

Isotonic Contractions

Two types - concentric and eccentric

Concentric Contractions

Muscle generates force in order to shorten, reducing the joint angle

Eccentric Contraction

Muscle lengthens and the joint angle increases


The muscle or muscles whose contraction is directly responsible in a particular movement


The muscle or muscles which produce an action opposite to that of the agonist


The most stable attachment of the muscle


The attachment of the muscle that moves towards the origin


Provide the body with its most efficient and readily available source of energy; include sugars, starches


Make up 55% of total daily energy


Important fuel source; important carriers of vitamins A, D, E and K


Make up 30% of total daily intake


Least efficient fuel source; important for growth and reapir of body tissues and the regulation of important body processes


Contain the eight essential amino acids necesary for building muscle


Should make up 10 - 15 percent of daily intake


Makes up approximately 70% of body weight; 1 - 2 Litres is required of this daily


Important food component found in the cellulose or outside coating of all foods from plants; not digested or absorbed but helps to keep you regular; Reccomended intake is 25 - 35 grams daily


Number of calories in a pound of fat


Used to assess appropriate weight ranges for individuals between ages of 18 and 65

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