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96 terms

Basic Fitness Leader

STUDY
PLAY
FITT Principle
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
Gluteus Maximus
Primary muscle or muscle group responsible for the extension of the hip joint
Active Living
way of life in which physical activity is valued as an important part of daily living.
Intrinsic Motivation
motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.
Extrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
RICE
Rest, Immobilize, Cold and Elevation
PAR-Q
This is a tool important to use as a prescreening tool for all participants
Cardiovascular endurance
Ability of the lungs to take oxygen into the body, the ability of the heart to pump it through the blood vessels to the muscle cells, and the ability of the muscles to extract oxygen; also called aerobic fitness
VO2 Max
Maximum amount of oxygen that a person can use while working.
Muscular strength
Maximum tension that a muscle can exert in a single contraction
Muscular Endurance
Ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over a period of time
Flexibility
The range of motion around a joint or a group of joints and is specific to each joint
Flexibility
Decreases with age and inactivity; reduces the risk of injuries
Progressive Overload
Increasing the duration, or intensity of exercise, doing new exercises, or changing the pace of your exercise will allow you to do this to your muscles.
Specificity
The type and degree of adaptation that the body makes depends on the type and amount of exercise performed
Principle of Ceiling Effect
While the body will continue to adapt in small ways to increasingly strenous levels of exercise, individuals will not continue to improve their fitness level indefinitely
Principle of Use-Disuse
After one stops exercising, the training effect will be lost at about 1/3 the rate at which it was gained
Principle of Adaptation
A bdy will respond to the type and amouint of physical demands placed upon it
The Rest Principle
During training, tissues are broken down. Training effect occurs when these tissues are replaced to a higher level during the rest period.
Static
In this type of stretching, a stretch is held for 10 - 30 seconds
Stretch Relex
Protective mechanism of the muscles which works to prevent muscle pulls and tears called by ballistic stretching; Initial reflex of muscle is to contract or shorten.
Maximum Heart Rate
Calculated using the formula 220 - your age
Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion
Alternative to heart rate monitoring; simpler method for participants to use to describe effort
Talk Test
States that during cardiovascular exercise, if an individual cannot carry on a conversation they are working to hard
Artery
A vessel carrying blood from the heart to the tissues
Capillary
Thin walled vessel forming part of the network which allows gas and nutrient exchange with the cells
Vein
Vessel carrying blood from the capillaries back to the heart
Valves
Fold of membrane which permits the flow of blood in one direction only
Right Atrium
Receives deoxygenated blood from the body
Right Ventricle
Contracts to pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Left Atrium
Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
Left Ventricle
Contracts to pump oxygenated blood to the body
Stroke Volume
Each time the heart beats, it ejects about 70mL of blood
Cardiac Output
Function of the number of times the heart beats per minute and the stroke volume
Coronary
These arteries nourish the heart muscle with blood
Normal Blood Pressure
120 / 80 mmHg
Anatomical Position
Universally accepted position in which trunk is errect, arms at sides, palms forward, legs straight and feet turned slightly outwards
Cartilage
Tough gristle like substance that protects the bones in a joint from rubbinbg against one another
Joint
Formed when two or more bones meet
Ligament
Fibrous cord of connective tissue that attaches a bone to a bone or other structure
Skeletal system
Framework of bones, gives body shape and support, protects organs and provides a system of levers for movement
Synovial Joint
Moveable joint that is surrounded by a tough protective capsule and bathed in lubricating fluid, normally providing free movement between the bones
Tendon
Fibrous cord of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Fascia
Layer of fibrous material separating or joining muscles
Anterior
to the front of
Posterior
to the rear of
Medial
Nearer the midline
Lateral
Farther from the midline
Superior
A structure higher than another structure
Inferior
A structure lower than another structure
Supine
Lying on back
Prone
Lying on front (face down)
Proximal
Closer to the centre of the body (refering to the limbs)
Distal
Further away from the centre of the body (refering to the limbs)
Flexion
Adjacent bones moving together decreasing the angle between them
Extension
Adjacent bones move apart increasing the angle between them
Hyperextension
An extension movement that is continued beyond normal range of motion
Hyperflexion
A flexion movement that is continued beyond the normal range of motion
Abduction
A body segment moves away from the midline of the body
Adduction
A body segment moves toward the midline of the body
Horizontal Adduction
Movement across the chest to midline
Horizontal Abduction
Movement of the arm away from midline
Rotation
A body part moves around its own long axis.
Dorsiflexion
Top of the foot moving toward the shin
Plantar Flexion
Top of the foot moving away from the shin
Eversion
Lifting the lateral boder of the foot
Inversion
Lifting the medial border of the foot
Supination
Lateral rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face anteriorly
Pronation
Medial rotation of the forearm which causes the palm to face posteriorly
Retraction
Movement of the scapula towards the midline
Protraction
Movement of the scapula away from the midtline
Depression
Scapula moving down
Elevation
Moving to a superior position; moving up
Lateral flexion
Head or torso bends to the side
Circumduction
A body part moves in a full circular path.
Type I Slow Twitch
Type of muscle fibre used for low-tension, submaximal exercise; good endurance and use oxygen well
Type II Fast Twitch
Type of muscle fibre that is generally larger and develops tension faster; more powerful but tire quickly
Isometric Contraction
Static contraction that involves no joint movement
Isotonic Contractions
Two types - concentric and eccentric
Concentric Contractions
Muscle generates force in order to shorten, reducing the joint angle
Eccentric Contraction
Muscle lengthens and the joint angle increases
Agonist
The muscle or muscles whose contraction is directly responsible in a particular movement
Antagonist
The muscle or muscles which produce an action opposite to that of the agonist
Origin
The most stable attachment of the muscle
Insertion
The attachment of the muscle that moves towards the origin
Carbohydrates
Provide the body with its most efficient and readily available source of energy; include sugars, starches
Carbohydrates
Make up 55% of total daily energy
Fats
Important fuel source; important carriers of vitamins A, D, E and K
Fats
Make up 30% of total daily intake
Protein
Least efficient fuel source; important for growth and reapir of body tissues and the regulation of important body processes
Protein
Contain the eight essential amino acids necesary for building muscle
Protein
Should make up 10 - 15 percent of daily intake
Water
Makes up approximately 70% of body weight; 1 - 2 Litres is required of this daily
Fibre
Important food component found in the cellulose or outside coating of all foods from plants; not digested or absorbed but helps to keep you regular; Reccomended intake is 25 - 35 grams daily
3500
Number of calories in a pound of fat
BMI
Used to assess appropriate weight ranges for individuals between ages of 18 and 65