37 terms

AP Psych Ch. 13 - Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
The scientific study of how people think about, interact with, influence, and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of other people.
Attitudes
Patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects that are based on a person's past experiences, shape his or her future behavior, and are evaluative in nature.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Theory suggesting that there are two routes to attitude change: the central route, which focuses on thoughtful consideration of an argument for change, and the peripheral route, which focuses on less careful, more emotional, and even superficial evaluation.
Cognitive Dissonance
A state of mental discomfort arising from a discrepancy between two or more of a person's beliefs or between a person's beliefs and overt behavior.
Self-perception Theory
Approach to attitude formation that assumes that people infer their attitudes and emotional states from their behavior.
Reactance
The negative response evoked when there is an inconsistency between a person's self-image as being free to choose and the person's realization that someone is trying to force him or her to choose a particular occurrence.
Social Cognition
The process of analyzing and interpreting events, other people, oneself, and the world in general.
Impression Formation
The process by which a person uses behavior and appearance of others to form attitudes about them.
Nonverbal Communication
The communication of information by cues or actions that include gestures, tone of voice, vocal inflections, and facial expressions.
Body Language
Communication of information through body positions and gestures.
Attributions
The process by which a person infers other people's motives or intensions by observing their behavior.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to attribute other people's behavior to dispositional (internal) causes rather than situational (external) causes.
Actor-observer Effect
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional causes but to attribute one's own behavior to situational causes.
Self-serving Bias
People's tendency to ascribe their positive behaviors to their own internal traits, but their failures and shortcomings to external, situational factors.
Prejudice
Negative evaluation of an entire group of people, typically based on unfavorable (and often wrong) stereotypes about groups.
Stereotypes
Fixed, overly simple and often erroneous ideas about traits, attitudes, and behaviors of groups of people; stereotypes assume that all members of a given group are alike.
Discrimination
Behavior targeted at individuals or groups and intended to hold them apart and treat them differently.
Social Categorization
The process of dividing the world into "in" groups and "out" groups.
Social Influence
The ways people alter the attitudes or behaviors of others, either directly or indirectly.
Conformity
People's tendency to change attitudes or behaviors so that they are consistent with those of other people or with social norms.
Obedience
Compliance with the orders of another person or group of people.
Debriefing
Informing participants about the true nature of a experiment after its completion.
Group
Two or more individuals who are working with a common purpose or have some common goals, characteristics, or interests.
Social Facilitation
Change in behavior that occurs when people believe they are in the presence of other people.
Social Loafing
Decrease in effort and productivity that occurs when an individual works in a group instead of alone.
Group Polarization
Shifts or exaggeration in group members' attitudes or behavior as a result of group discussion.
Groupthink
The tendency of people in a group to seek concurrence with one another when reaching a decision, rather than effectively evaluating options.
Deindividuation
The process by which individuals lose their self-awareness and distinctive personality in the context of a group, which may lead them to engage in antinormative behavior.
Aggression
Any behavior intended to harm another person or thing.
Prosocial Behavior
Behavior that benefits someone else or society but that generally offers no obvious benefit to the person performing it and may even involve some personal risk or sacrifice.
Altruism
Behaviors that benefit other people and for which there is no discernable extrinsic reward, recognition, or appreciation.
Sociobiology
A discipline based on the premise that even day-to-day behaviors are determined by the process of natural selection - that social behaviors that contribute to the survival of a species are passed on via the genes from one generation to the next.
Bystander Effect
Unwillingness to help exhibited by witnesses to an event, which increase when there are more observers.
Interpersonal Attraction
The tendency of one person to evaluate another person (or a symbol or image of another person) in a positive way.
Equity Theory
Social psychological theory that states that people attempt to maintain stable, consistent interpersonal relationships in which the ratio of member's contributions is balanced.
Intimacy
A state of being or feeling in which each person in a relationship is willing to self-disclose and to express important feelings and information to the other person.
Ex Post Facto Design
A type of design that contrasts groups of people who differ on some variable of interest to the researcher.
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