Modern China History Midterm
Terms in this set (88)
Method of military organization applied by the Manchus whereby fighting men (and their families) were grouped in divisions identified by different colored banners. Eight banners were devised, using the colors red, blue, yellow, and white: four plain and four bordered. The system, begun by Nurhaci, was phased out in the early twentieth century with the development of the Qing New Army.
Method of household organization and control, based on a system described in ancient texts and employed with varying degrees of success from the Song dynasty through the Qing. One hundred households were organized into a jia. then 10 jia made a bao. The Leaders of the units, elected on a rotating basis, were charged with maintaining local order, supervising community works, and enforcing tax collection.
Boxer Uprising (1900)
Cause: anti-foreign sentiment in China; Result: secret societies the Righteous Harmonious Fists or Boxers rebelled against western control, international military force put down the rebellion, US wanted China to pay the indemnity not with land so that they could still have a way to trade
(r. 1402-1424) The son of Taizu, he was often called illegitimate due to his murder of the second Ming Emperor. He was autocratic and very concerned with legitimizing his own rule, which he tried to do via gaining the support of literati. Some supported him, but others, like Fang Xiaoru, refused to call him legitimate and died for their morals. A military man, he moved the capital to Beijing to face the Mongols and mounted unsuccessful campaigns against the Mongols and Vietnamese.
was an emperor of the Ming dynasty (1572-1620) whose inattention to government affairs contributed to the abuses of power by provincial officials and other political figures. The violence and corruption among leaders of the northern provinces led to much popular dissatisfaction and the invasion of the north by the manchu thus leading to the development of the Qing dynasty.
(1405 - 1433) eunuch and an admiral in the Chinese Navy. Establishes Chinas contacts through various parts of the world. Has enormous ships with 9 masts, in 1433 He is fired and the navy is disbanded and his log books are destroyed due to the Mandarins and how they believe that everything good is already in China; goes on 7 expeditions in the Indian Ocean
A noted Ming scholar whose support the Yongle Emperor tried to gain in order to legitimize himself. Fang Xiaoru refused to legitimize the Emperor, as he had murdered his predecessor, and was executed along with his family for his trouble.
12th century Chinese man in the Song Dynasty that was the main creator of Neo-Confucianism. He combined moral, ethical, and political values of Confucius with the logical rigor and speculative power of Buddhism.
Zhu's version of Confucian thought that was the teaching of the way of lixue or the teaching of principle, that became the standard curriculum for the imperial civil service examination system. The Neo-Confucian dominance of the civil service continued until the whole system was abolished in 1905.
A Ming peasant who started a rebellion, because of the disease and royal corruption, which spread from central China to the rest of the empire; the army took Beijing in 1644, and the emperor and many of the bureaucracy killed themselves; when the Manchus took over, Li's troops lost to them
Descendants of the Jurchens who helped the Ming army recapture Beijing in 1644 after its seizure by the outlaw Li Zicheng. The Manchus numbered around 1 million but controlled a domain that included perhaps 250 million people. Their rule lasted more than 250 years and became known as the Qing dynasty.
A Manchurian cheiftain who acted as the Architect of Manchu unification, who united the Manchu tribes in order to defeat the Ming Dynasty and to establish the Qing dynasty. Nurhaci went to the Ming court and asked for tribute, but was denied, and as a result he convinced the Manchu tribes to work together and rebel against Ming in an extensive conflict that lasted over two decades before ending with the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the rise of Manchu rule in the Qing Dynasty.
(r. 1626-1643) Son of Nurgaci who created the ethnic identity of the Manchu. After a defeat by a cannon in 1626, he captured artillery experts in 1629 and harnessed this new military technology. He also used a policy of centralization of power using Chinese officials to build a state capable of conquering and ruling Ming China. Established the Qing Dynasty in 1636.
The Qing break up the South into three sections that they give to Generals to run autonomously and establish order. After a few decades, the Qing ask for control of the territories back. Wu Sangui is against this and the Emperor asks Wu Sangui to return to Beijing. Wu Sangui allies with the other two generals and rises up against the Qing. Wu Sangui makes a bad political decision by saying he was fighting for restoration of the Ming dynasty. Wu Sangui dies halfway through the revolt and it promptly begins to die.
Ming Chinese general who was instrumental in the succession of rule to the Qing Dynasty in 1644. Considered by most people to be a traitor to both the Ming and the Qing dynasties, Wu declared himself Emperor of China as ruler of the Zhou Dynasty in 1678, but his revolt was quelled by the Qing Kangxi Emperor.
The Kangxi Emperor came to the Qing throne in 1662, when he was only 8 years old. He transformed the Manchu way of rulership into a truly Confucian establishment. He also gained control over the Manchu hierarchy and suppressed armed rebellions and contributed to economic prosperity and the patronage of art and culture
A set of moral beliefs based on Confucian values that were meant to popularize Confucian beliefs. It was issued in 1670 by emperor Kangxi and was aimed at the general people
this was a dispute within the catholic church during the 1700s in which they wanted to decide whether or not china could embrace Catholicism or Confucianism. they decided that it would be a bad idea to bring catholicism into china and they removed most of the catholic missionary involvement from china. china embraced their traditional philosophies, which resulted in them falling behind europe scientificly and technologicly.
ruled from 1723-1735; 4th son of Kangxi; created a 5- man Grand Council; reformed administrative and fiscal problems
the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty (r. 1736-1795), in what was considered China's "Golden Age". In the mid-18th century received pressure to allow for more trade with Europe. Visited by George Macartney, who refused to perform the kowtow and bow to the emperor.
A confederation of western Mongols who tried to gain territory around the Qings from all sides. They gained some land but were defeated my the Qings. It's significant becaue the Qings finally ended trouble with rebellious nomadic people and took all of the Zunghars land, expanding their empire.
Qing emperor's favorite man; hated by senior bureaucrats, suspecting him of overseeing widespread network of corruption; arrested (guilty) after emperor's death, forced to commit suicide
A group that was influential in restoring faith in the teachings of Jesus as interpreted by the Catholic Church. Followers practiced self-control and moderation, believing that prayer and good works led to salvation.
Treaty of Nerchinsk
in 1689, it was the first treaty between Russia and china. the Russians gave up the area south of the Amur river and east of the mouth of the Amur river but kept the area between the Amur river and lake Baikal in exchange for permission to trade with china and china's recognition of the Russian empire
Represents both stern and authoritative father and compassionate mother (Iron Fist within Velvet Glove)
Title given to men who passed the exams on Chinese literature. They were held with the highest honor, and could hold positions in government no one else could. Their family was also very respected.
A lower-level judicial officer, usually elected in urban areas, who handles traffic violations, minor criminal offenses, and civil suits involving small amounts of money. More generally, magistrate means public official.
A single braid that chinese men had to wear to be distinguished from manchu.
The act of binding women's feet together in China. It was done because men found it beautiful (restriction) and therefore mothers did this to their daughters so they could get married (also concubine competition). Ramifications beyond elite - poorer families needed females to work so had to make a decision-> hope to get a husband, or work
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty.
The Canton system was a trading pattern that developed between Chinese and foreign merchants, in Guangzhou (Canton) from the 17th to the 19th century. All foreign trade coming into China was confined to Canton and the foreign traders entering the city were subject to a series of regulations by the Chinese government.
He ruled from 1821 to 1850. He was a weaker emperor than the first three emperor and wasn't able to deal with the external threats and internal strife that China was facing.
Lord George Macartney
Sent to Northern China by King George III., In 1793, this man delivered a letter from King George III to Qianlong. It asked for a better trade arrangement, including Chinese acceptance of British manufactured goods. He refused to kowtow and Qianlong denied Britian's request.
19th-century Chinese official charged during the 1830s with ending the opium trade in southern China; set off the events leading to the Opium War.
British. Tries to help Lin Zexu. Has foreign merchants deliver their opium to him, which he gives to Lin. He promises the merchants that they'll be paid for their lost property. Lin believed there was more opium, and there wasn't. (?) Sets up a situation favorable for war. All Brit. merchants banned from China.
1839-1842 British vs. China. China tried to ban opium, which was being supplied by the British. China lost, led to the treaty of Nanking.
The Opium War
Britain was exporting opium to China, who's population was becoming addicted to the illegal substance. It was a major problem for Chinese government, but when they tried to retaliate against Britain they were thwarted by the more industrialized country. China tried to convince Portugal to side with them and shut down trading with Britain, and upon hearing this, Britain fired back and seized China's ports. This war was settled with the Treaty of Nanjing.
An important Chinese city, it was the capital of Ming China until 1421, when the capital was relocated to the Forbidden City. , AKA Nanking, site of a massacre of Chinese civilians and children at the hands of the Japanese, 1937. , Capital of China under the Ming dynasty; this city was located in southern China
The Treaty of Nanking
the treaty that concluded the Opium War. it awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded the island of Hong Kong to Britain.
Treaty Port System
An interstate system that developed through treaties in the mid-nineteenth century between China and Japan on the one hand, and European and American powers on the other, to regulate trade and legal privileges of European and American powers in selected ports in China and Japan.
A British dependency from the 1840's to July 1997 when control of it was given back to the Chinese.
"Century of Humiliation"
Century starting with the defeat in 1839 Opium War, lasting through the Japanese conquest of china in the 1930s
Chinese religious leader who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth
(1850-1864) revolt against the Qing dynasty in China led by Hong Xiuguan, a convert to Christianity; over 20 million Chinese died; eventually suppressed with British and French aid
(1811-1872) he prolonged the Qing dynasty's life with a new kind of military force. He was a dedicated Confucian and a product of the examination system. Unlike old armies of Qing, his was a regional force for Hunan. He recruited officer of similar regional and ideological background, personally selected by himself.
(1828-1912): First Chinese to graduate from an American university (Yale, 1854). With his knowledge of the West, he served in Qing self-strengthening efforts such as assisting Zeng Guofan in buying machine equipment and arms from the United States
A dominant intellectual modality. the essence (ti) was to remain Chinese, but useful gadgets (yong) could be borrowed from the West. This formula enabled a restabilized China to borrow and reform in small ways, such as building arsenals and railroads while remaining Chinese at the core.
the General of General Tso's Chicken, leader of the Qing armies that suppressed the Muslim revolts in northwest China (1862-1873). He, who had also led his own local Hunan militia against the Taiping, was appointed to important government and military posts by the Qing in spite of never having received a jinshi degree. Major player in the Ili Crisis.
Late 19th century. New army, N. Ocean amry that General Li Hongzhang created as a self-strengthening reform. Showed their limitation and lost to Japan in Sino-Japanese war
1823-1901 a sophisticated politician, an adept diplomat and an industrial pioneer of the later Qing Dynasty who helped repel the Taiping Rebellion. He made strenuous efforts to modernize his country, ended several major rebellions, and became a leading figure in China's relations with the Western powers
A major character in the Self-Strengthening movement. Asserts Chinese learning is the essence and western learning is for practical use. Does not want to do away with Confucianism but supplement it with western learning.
In charge of foreign affairs in China. Established by Prince Gong in 1861. Created following the Beijing treaty. First major innovation in the government since Yongzheng. Resistance to this and the Christians.
Chinese warlord who was the country's leader from 1912 to 1916; he hoped to establish himself as the ruler of a dynasty to replace the Qing; forced from power.
1861-1875. While the reforms enacted during his rule were referred to as the "Tongzhi Restoration", he had little to no power and it was Cixi who was calling all of the shots. The reforms were uneven because of the Qing courts waffling so they did not achieve much.
He was in charge of governing China in the 1860s and 1870s. He is remembered for being an advocate of maintaining strong ties with Westerners and his attempts to modernise China. One of the major contributors of Self-Strengthening
ruled China in the late 1800s; supported few reforms but was very conservative; since she was female and because of China's many problems at the time, many countries took advantage of her
In 1883, the French waged the Sino-French War on China for control of Vietnam. The Chinese lost the war and control of Vietnam; subsequently, the French established a colony there called French Indochina.
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese ports, city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
1858-1927 A Confucian scholar, imperial loyalist, and leader of the Hundred Days Reform in the late 19th century. Sentenced to death but escaped to japan.
A Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist during the Qing Dynasty. Inspired many other scholars with his writings and movements. Participated in the "Hundred Days of Reform."
Female supporters of the Chinese Boxers who rebelled against foreign intrusions in China at the turn of the twentieth century. Most were teenage girls and unmarried women and dressed entirely in red garments.
(1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed Koumintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynastyand established a republican form of government in its place.
Three People's Principles
nationalism, democracy, livelihood/welfare, three steps towards revolution that Sun Yat-sen plots out for success in transitioning China from feudalism to a republic.
Chinese woman who left her husband and went to Japan to study. Eventually founded Chinese women's journal urging women to fight for their rights. Executed after participating in failed attempt to overthrow Qing Dynasty 1875-1907
revolutionary, authored "the Revolution Army" in 1903 - argued that Chinese were being enslaved by Manchus and that figures such as Zeng Guofan, Zuo Zongtang, and Li Hongzhang were traitors, China should establish republic with constitution modeled after American one
Historical Significance: The Wuchang Uprising of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty, originated in Wuhan. Prior to the uprising, anti-Qing secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak of the protests in Sichuan forced the Qing authorities to send part of the New Army stationed in Wuhan to suppress the rebellion.
powerful vice primier, manipulated the versailles treaty in favor of japan and betrayed china
self-taught Christian convert who trained his soldiers with both Christian and Chinese traditional values, devoted to social and educational reform, received monetary & material support from Russia
nicknamed the "Dogmeat General" and "72-Cannon Chang" was a Chinese warlord in Shandong in the early 20th century. Time dubbed him China's "basest warlord
In 1905, together with Sun Yat-sen, Song helped found, and was a leading activist in, the Tongmenghui. He was dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a republic. Song returned to China in 1910 after the Xinhai Revolution, and helped transform Tongmenghui into the KMT
An ultimatum presented by Japan to China primarily requiring China to cease its leasing of territory to other foreign powers and to allow Japan to control Manchuria and Shandong; name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade.
National Humiliation Day
although Japan dropped one set of proposals, Yuan Shikai accepted the rest of them, known in Chinese history as ____
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
1919 uprising displaying disdain for the Treaty of Versailles giving Japan some German territory that had previously been Chinese. Spurred the formation of political parties, including the CCP
New Culture Movement
An intellectual revolution, sometimes called the Chinese Renaissance, that attacked traditional Chinese, particularly Confucian, culture and promoted Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism, from around 1916 to 1923
(September 25, 1881 - October 19, 1936), The beloved Chinese author who criticized traditional China through such classics as "The Diary of a Madman" and "Ah Q"
a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary
1920's, Magazine which expounded Western thought in China. Influential in bringing about revolution among the youth of China.
1888- 1927; Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
(1891-1962): Philosophy, essayist, and diplomat widely recognized for his role in writing Baihua (also influential in May 4th and was a leader of the New Culture Movement
The agreement between the Communists and Nationalist in 1936 that they would become allies to defeat the Japanese.
Labor and anti-imperialist movement. 1925 Protest by large groups calling for foreigners to leave China and to eliminate extraterritoriality. Police respond by opening fire. It was the ultimate example of foreign exploitation.
Leader of the Guomindang, he headed the the Guomindang nationalist government in China from the late 1920 until 1949. He tried to destroy the communists in China.
1883-1944; He is a rival of Chiang Kai-shek, Labeled as collaporateor with Japan; Leader of the KMt in Shanghai; oppsed to Chiang Kai-shek leading away KMT; Japanese recruit him to be a leader, making him a collaborator.
(1926-1928) Expedition led by Chiang Kai Shek to defeat the warlords of Northern China and to unify China. Chiang became the president of China.
Jiang's second in command, kidnapped Jiang in 1936 and brought him to Xian, demanding that he unite with the communists and fight Japan
China's largest city. Textile mills make cloth, and iron mines provide raw materials for heavy manufacturing. Now a center for trade and banking.
1927-37: total reform of china through monetary reform, communication systems, education and literature