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Lower arm bone, little finger side


Lower arm bone, thumb side

Synovial Joint

Allows wide range of movement, contains synovial fluid

Joint Capsule

Connective tissue surrounding joint

Synovial Membrane

Lines inside of capsule and secretes fluid

Articular Cartilage

Covers end of bones to prevent friction


Sacs of synovial fluid

Ball & Socket Joint

Allows widest range of movement, shoulders and hips only

Hinge Joint

Allows flexion and extension e.g. elbow

Pivot Joint

Allows rotation e.g. between 1st 2 vertebral bones


Bending at knee or elbow, raising arm and leg at shoulder and hip along sagittal plane


Straightening at knee or elbow, lowering arm and leg at shoulder and hip along sagittal plane


Pointing foot at hinge joint of ankle


Bring toes towards shin at hinge joint of ankle

Horizontal adduction

Moving arm at ball and socket joint of shoulder along transverse plane towards midline of body

Horizontal abduction

Moving arm at ball and socket joint of shoulder along transverse plane away from midline of body

Anterior deltoid

Front section of shoulder muscle causing horizontal adduction of upper arm

Posterior deltoid

Back section of shoulder muscle causing horizontal abduction of upper arm

Biceps brachii agonist concentric

Upper arm muscle causing elbow flexion e.g. racquet stroke after contact

Triceps brachii agonist concentric

Causes elbow extension e.g. throwing, preparation for racquet stroke, upwards phase of press-up

Triceps brachii agonist eccentric

Controls elbow flexion due to gravity e.g. downwards phase of press-up

Posterior deltoid agonist concentric

Causes horizontal abduction at shoulder e.g. preparation for forehand racquet stroke

Anterior deltoid agonist concentric

upward phase of wide arm press up, forehand racquet stroke contact and follow through

Anterior deltoid agonist eccentric

Downward phase of wide arm press-up

Gastrocnemius agonist concentric

Calf muscle causing plantarflexion at ankle e.g. in drive phase of running and jumping

Tibialis Anterior agonist concentric

Muscle in front of shin causing dorsiflexion at ankle e.g. when landing in recovery phase of running and on landing a jump

Quadriceps agonist concentric

Cause knee extension e.g. when jumping, kicking and in drive phase of running

Quadriceps agonist eccentric

Controls knee flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squat, preparation and on landing a jump

Hamstrings agonist concentric

Cause knee flexion e.g. recovery phase of running, preparation to kick

Iliopsoas agonist concentric

Causes hip flexion e.g. kicking, recovery phase of running

Gluteus Maximus agonist concentric

Causes hip extension e.g. drive phase of running, preparation for kicking

Gluteus Maximus agonist eccentric

Controls hip flexion due to gravity e.g. downward phase of squats

Bones articulating at elbow

Humerus, Ulna, Radius

Bones articulating at shoulder

Humerus, Clavicle, Scapula

Bones articulating at hip

Femur, Pelvis

Bones articulating at knee

Femur, Tibia, Patella

Bones articulating at ankle

Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals

Synovial fluid

Lubricates and reduces friction between articulating bones

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