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APUSH Seton Multiple Choice, Short Answer, and Essay
Terms in this set (48)
What determines the social structure of Native American culture?
Religion and Military. In the Aztec Culture, priests and warrior nobles ruled over free Aztec commoners who farmed communal land. Nobles also had slaves or serfs on private estates.
1. The Elders are the wisest and most respected. They are always the ones to come to if in need of help.
2. The men are the warriors. They go out to hunt and collect food. They are the ones who are called upon when a battle is taking place.
3. The women are the ones who stay back at the camp to prepare food and attend to household duties.
4. The boys were taught how to hunt and fight by the Elders or the men. The girls stayed back at the camp and were taught by the women.
How did slavery in Africa differ from the development of slavery in America?
Slavery in Africa was used to be able to attain more land because land ownership was per a person ratio. They would buy slaves to work for them so that they would be able to own more land. In America, slaves were used on large plantations to mass produce produces. Slaves that worked in Africa came from the land it's self compared to America have slaves shipped from Africa.
How did Native Americans regard land as property?
They believed that man belonged to the land, not that the land belonged to man, these thoughts conflicted those of the white Americana's, this caused much uproar between the two groups.
Why did slavery develop in Africa?
Slavery started in Africa because of warring groups taking ownership of colonies that they beat. Land was not owned in Africa, but it was given to families by the amount they needed per a person. For families to get more land they would invest in slaves or steal people from other villages to be able to own more land.
One reason was that there was an established slave trade out of Africa operated by African people out of the West coast and along natural shipping and trade lanes between sugar and supply of that sugar for making rum and the need for laborers in America.
Also because the African people had black skin they were clearly "marked" as being different and it was easy for early unsophisticated people (by today's standards) to treat them as "animal like".
Why did Europeans take slaves?
Slavery already existed in Africa for centuries and the slave trade would make Europe extremely wealthy. Europeans bought millions of slaves in West, Central, and East Africa and sent them to Europe; the Caribbean; and North, Central, and South America. They made the slave trade central to the economies of many African states and threatened many more Africans with enslavement. The Atlantic slave trade developed after Europeans began exploring and establishing trading posts on the Atlantic (west) coast of Africa in the mid-15th century.
What caused Jamestown to almost fail?
Jamestown was built on a low island surround by a marshy swamp, with little available drinking water (the James River was a tidal river which meant the water tended to be salty). The hoards of mosquitoes which in addition to being pests, also bred disease. Further, there was a tribe of Indians nearby, the Paspaheghs, who were not very friendly. By 1617, Jamestown had been repeatedly re-supplied with food and men—and yet it still hovered on the edge of starvation. Moreover, it had failed to even come close to realizing any of its founders' more elaborate economic ambitions. Collapse and abandonment loomed as a real possibility. Within a few years, however, it was clear that the colony would survive. But it would be saved not by reorganization, tougher laws, more intelligent recruiting, or the resolution of its racist ideas. What saved Jamestown was the discovery of tobacco.
How did English settlements affect Native Americans?
it expanded trade
it improved their village life
it threatened their way of life
it improved their farming methods
Europeans Bring Diseases
Europeans Disrupt Food Supply
The Effects of Warfare
Christianization, Coexistence and Captives
Be able to list the New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, and Southern Colonies
The New England Colonies
Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Middle Colonies
The Southern Colonies
Why did England need the colonies?
It gave them a safety valve for excess population. Instead of being poor and angry in England, some people could head for the colonies. This reduced social tension in England.
It helped them economically. England could get raw materials from the colonies as well as things like rum that could be better produced in the colonies. They could sell finished goods to the colonists.
It made them look powerful. Having colonies helped make England look like a world power.
It gave England a strategic base in the New World - a place to station troops and warships and to stage military forces against her enemies, France and Spain.
The colonies were not only a safety valve for excess population, but for peoples the King did not want, or who challenged his authority, such as the Puritans and the Catholics, and the Quakers. These religious minorities were shuttled to America and the social issues that accompanied them no longer troubled the King.
Because they were settlements, not just colonies, England grew at a fast rate as their population in America had more room to expand and grow, and immigration sped that growth. As English subjects, this raised the power of the Empire overall.
What were some of the affects of the Great Awakening?
splits among the existing religious denominations and the rise of new churches.
The Awakening's biggest significance was the way it prepared America for its War of Independence. In the decades before the war, revivalism taught people that they could be bold when confronting religious authority, and that when churches weren't living up to the believers' expectations, the people could break off and form new ones.
Through the Awakening, the Colonists realized that religious power resided in their own hands, rather than in the hands of the Church of England, or any other religious authority. After a generation or two passed with this kind of mindset, the Colonists came to realize that political power did not reside in the hands of the English monarch, but in their own will for self-governance (consider thewording of the Declaration of Independence). By 1775, even though the Colonists did not all share the same theological beliefs, they did share a common vision of freedom from British control. Thus, the Great Awakening brought about a climate which made the American Revolution possible.
What were some of the women's contributions to colonial society?
They were able to make fabric and helped work the farms with planting and growing food. They made the clothes for the family and were the primary care takers of the family.
What were the causes of the French and Indian War?
The principal cause was the struggle for control of Prussia. This made the Seven Years War a world war. There were also things to fight about in the colonies:
Both the British and the French said they owned the Ohio country. This land was between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Both wanted it for strategic reasons, for the fur trade, and for possible future settlement.
Both European countries used Native American claims to the land. The British said it belonged to their Iroquois Indians, and the French said it belonged to their Hurons. Neither side asked what the people of the Ohio Country might want. The land supported the beaver pelt.
The British colonists feared the control of a pope in North America. France's land was controlled by the French and the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant British settlers saw this as a threat to their religious freedoms that they had under English law.
Both France (in Quebec) and England had settlements in the Ohio Valley, and each sought to control the resources there (fur, timber). Caught in the middle were the Indians (Native American tribes), who sided mostly with the French because the English settlers were building permanent settlements on their lands.
Britain and France were rival countries, and always fought for supremacy. Also, both countries believed that some of the area was owned by them. Plus, the British saw the French land being controlled by the Roman Catholic church as a threat to their religious freedom. And finally, the New World had enormous possibilities politically, socially, and especially economically.
What caused the start of the Revolutionary War?
But when the French and Indian War took place (1754 - 1763), King George III lost a great deal of money due to buying expensive supplies for his army and the colonies. In order to pay off his debt, he imposed taxes on the colonies without their consent.
The Boston Tea Party
The Intolerable Acts
The First Continental Congress
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Second Continental Congress
Why did colonists protest the Stamp Act?
They protested it because it put high unfair taxes on items, even the littlest ones like playing cards, newspapers, books and eventually tea. Also they did not want to be controlled in any way by Britain. They believed that without representation in parliament, they should not be taxed.
How did colonists react to increasing tensions with the British?
Increased tension between the British and the Colonies leads to violence, governmental action and revolutionary prose. Boston Massacre.
What are the 3 parts of the Declaration of Independence?
intent - they're rationale for why they are writing the document, the rights of individuals, and the purpose of government
list of grievances - all of the unjust things the King George such as taxation without representation, his refusal to do things in the common good of the people, and his allowing of soldiers live in citizen's home without consent
declaration - this states that they are breaking away from Great Britain
What was the impact of the American Revolution?
The British gave America all of the land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, from Canada to the north and Florida to the south. The land east of the Mississippi River, between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes was known as the Northwest Territory. The English had taken this land from the French during the French and Indian War. The British had not allowed the colonists to move west over the Appalachian Mountains into this territory. They had "reserved" it for the Indian Nations. This land would now be open for settlement.
After the war, the British Army and Navy agreed to leave all American territories. England had controlled trade in the colonies. They had forced the colonists to trade only with England and buy only English goods. They had placed heavy taxes on products from other countries. The United States was now able to trade freely with other countries of the world.
What are the 3 branches of government and their functions?
The Congress is the Legislative Branch. Its main function is to pass laws. It also oversees the execution of these laws, and checks various executive and judicial powers.
The Congress is bicameral- it is composed of two houses. One house is the House of Representatives, the other is the Senate.
The President, Vice President, and other executive officials make up the Executive Branch. The main function of this branch is to execute the laws created by Congress. The President and the Vice-President are chosen by the Electoral College, a body of persons elected for the purpose of electing the President. One may wait to consider the Electoral College in further detail.
The President appoints several Secretaries to head executive departments. An executive department is a body covering a broad topic of law- examples include the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Justice. The several secretaries (in the case of the Justice Department, the Attorney General) serve as advisors to the President and also as the chief officers of their own departments. This group of advisors is collectively known as the President's cabinet. The President nominates these Secretaries, as well as other important federal officials, and the Senate advises and consents to them.
The Supreme Court and the lower courts compose the Judicial Branch. The judiciary must interpret the laws of the United States. In the course of such interpretations, the courts may find that a law violates the constitution. If so, the court declares the law unconstitutional. Thus, the judiciary also has a role in determining the law of the land.
The judges of federal courts are nominated by the President and advised and consented to by the Senate. The number of judges and the exact structure of the courts is set by law, and not by the Constitution
What is the difference between loose and strict constructionists?
Strict construction meant that those interpreting it thought that that the government should only have powers that were expressly stated in the constitution. Like, it shouldn't stretch the limits or try to do things that the constitution didn't say specifically were ok to do.
Loose is the opposite. Those that interpreted the constitution loosely said that the government could use "implied" powers, that weren't necessarily written word for word in the constitution. These people wanted a stronger national government with more power.
Why was the Election of 1800 a turning point?
It marks the first time that there was actually a change in who was in power. After Washington served his two terms, Adams was elected. They were both Federalists. In the 1800 election, Jefferson, who was a Democratic-Republican was elected. This is a big deal because it meant that the US would be able to have one group lose power to another group without it causing a civil war or any other serious disturbance.
The second way in which this could be seen as a turning point is that it marked the start of Democratic-Republican dominance and a turn toward more democracy. Jefferson was much more democratic in his political beliefs and personal style than Adams or Washington had been - for example, he walked places in Washington rather than being driven in a fancy carriage.
Starting with Jefferson, America started to become more democratic. (The Federalists had been more elitist and less interested in democracy.) By the 1820s, more and more white men had been given the right to vote -- almost to the point where all white men were allowed to vote -- this was a huge change.
What was the importance and outcome of the War of 1812?
The Importance of the War of 1812 was that it ended the Federalist Era in the US and sparked the Era of Good Feeling. It also refined Americans common defense. The war ended with the treaty of Ghent which retained the prewar borders of the United States
During the Expansion, Sectionalism, and Reform Period, be able to describe some of the population trends.
Asian and European Immigrants and exodusters.
During the Expansion, Sectionalism, and Reform Period, be able to describe some of the important social changes.
Chapter 17 Christian Movements Temperance Movement Women's rights
During the Republican Society development, what was the basis of women's husbands selection?
Jobs instead of family heritage
What was the impact and spread of Industrial Revolution?
The industrial Revolution caused factories to spring up across the nation. this caused cities to become more populous due to job opportunities in the factories. This grew into the invention of the steam Engine which helped carry people and supplies all over the country. People could produce more goods at a faster pace and therefor increase profit. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain until Samuel Slter brought it to the US with the first Industrial mill.
Compare/Contrast the growth of cities in North v. South.
The northern cities grew faster than the Southern cities do to the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought factories and more jobs to the Northern Cities. This caused more people to come to the cities ad led to larger cities. The Southern cities maintained its agricultural lifestyle and therefore the cities stayed stagnant. Both Northern Cities and Southern Cities grew more technologically advanced. the South had more advance farming equipment that helped them have a larger yield and create more money. The Northern Cities created new machines that could produce products faster, cheaper, and more efficient.
Why were most mills built in New England?
The New England area was full of fast flowing steams and rivers that made it ideal for Mills. It was also close to the coast which meant easy access to trade and ports along the east coast.
During the Reform Period, which reform brought the most tension?
What were the differences between the North and the South during the Antebellum Period?
Our historical understanding of antebellum America is heavily colored by our knowledge of the disaster that brought that era of American history to a close: the Civil War. But the people who lived through the antebellum period had no way of knowing that historians would later define their era by the war that ended it. ("Antebellum" is Latin for "pre-war.") Antebellum Americans did, however, understand and appreciate the seriousness of the increasing sectional conflict dividing the country between the slave-labor, agricultural South and the "free labor," industrializing North.
Antebellum culture in America reflected the growing sectional crisis, at times seeking to pave over sectional differences and at other times making light of them. Congressmen pushed through a "gag rule" so that the difficult subject of slavery would simply be made taboo in the chambers of government. Playwrights invented "vernacular characters" that represented the Yankee of the North and the Cavalier of the South; these exaggerated embodiments of regional stereotypes enabled audiences to chuckle at the idiosyncrasies of each group. Sometimes, however, the differences between North and South were less pronounced than the similarities; while only southerners enslaved black people, white Americans from both North and South overwhelmingly embraced anti-black racism. White people in the North rubbed burnt cork or coal on their faces to perform in "blackface," mimicking ludicrous stereotypes of African-Americans to entertain each other. This blackface minstrelsy was obviously deeply racist, but the popular form of entertainment was actually more complicated than that. The performances revealed how northerners were simultaneously fascinated by black people and derisive of them; onstage mocking of blacks provided relief for working-class whites' anxieties over their own social status as hourly wage laborers.
Why was the Civil War unavoidable?
1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South.
With Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor, i.e. slaves. Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order.
2. States versus federal rights.
Since the time of the Revolution, two camps emerged: those arguing for greater states rights and those arguing that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the US after the American Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. The thirteen states formed a loose confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weakness of this form of government caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the US Constitution. Strong proponents of states rights like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were not present at this meeting. Many felt that the new constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to act independently. They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied states this right. However, proponents such as John C. Calhoun fought vehemently for nullification. When nullification would not work and states felt that they were no longer respected, they moved towards secession.
3. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.
As America began to expand, first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War, the question of whether new states admitted to the union would be slave or free. The Missouri Compromise passed in 1820 made a rule that prohibited slavery in states from the former Louisiana Purchase the latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes north except in Missouri. During the Mexican War, conflict started about what would happen with the new territories that the US expected to gain upon victory. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846 which would ban slavery in the new lands. However, this was shot down to much debate. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between slave and free states, northern and southern interests. One of the provisions was the fugitive slave act that was discussed in number one above. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free or slave. The real issue occurred in Kansas where pro-slavery Missourians began to pour into the state to help force it to be slave. They were called "Border Ruffians." Problems came to a head in violence at Lawrence Kansas. The fighting that occurred caused it to be called "Bleeding Kansas." The fight even erupted on the floor of the senate when antislavery proponent Charles Sumner was beat over the head by South Carolina's Senator Preston Brooks.
4. Growth of the Abolition Movement.
Increasingly, the northerners became more polarized against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John Brown's Raid, and the passage of the fugitive slave act that held individuals responsible for harboring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-slave states.
5. The election of Abraham Lincoln.
Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession." They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests. Before Lincoln was even president, seven states had seceded from the Union: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
What were the affects of the Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act and Fugitive Slave Act?
To mollify the South, the compromise included a new Fugitive Slave Act that gave federal support to slave catchers. To satisfy the Norht, the legislation admitted California as a free state, resolved a boundary dispute between New Mexico and Texas. The compromise organized the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico into the territories of New Mexico and Utah. The Compromise of 180 preserved the union but barely. It compromise benefited the Civil War, no slave trade in Washington D.C. The Kansas Nebraska Act opened new lands for settlement and repealed the Missouri Compromise. It showed that each state could choose whether to be a slave state or not. the Fugitive Slave Act made more people fear slave uprisings in the South
What event started the Civil War?
On April 12, 1861, Confederate warships turned back the supply convoy to Fort Sumter and opened a 34-hour bombardment on the stronghold. The garrison surrendered on April 14. The Civil War was now underway. On April 15, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to join the Northern army.
Give 3 reasons as to why the South seceded?
Slavery, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln being president, and Economy
How did the North and South prepare for the war? What were their advantages?
The north had the anaconda plan
The south had the cotton diplomacy.
Before the war started the north had most if not all of the major factories. The south had most of the agricultre cotton wheat etc. The north was stragling the souths cash flow and economic development. When the southern states complained in Washington it fell on deaf ears. The South then voted to suceed from the union. Most of the orginized military was already in the north. Milita and volunteers in the South. The south found them selves in a rock and a hard place. Slavery was an issue but not the main issue as you are led to believe. With no regular army out dated weapons and little to no manufacturing the south did pretty well. If they could have planed better and built a military things may be different today. Kinda scarey.
North (Advantage) Had almost 4 times as many free citizens
South (Advantage) Defending their homeland gave them a strong reason to fight
North (Advantage) Had many people to grow food and to work in factories making supplies
South (Advantage) Had skills that made them good soldiers
North (Advantage) Had more than 70% of the nation's rail lines
South (Advantage) Many of the best officers in the United States were from the South
North (Advantage) Had a strong navy and a large fleet of private trading ships
Two big advantages were the raw materials and the weather. The North had the manufacturing capabilities to manufacture the items needed to make war, but the South had the raw materials. The coal and the textiles. The other advantage was the weather. The winter was a hardship on the northern troops, quite often forcing them to hunker down and wait out storms. Not to mention slowing supply lines. Whereas, in the South, they could make war year round. In the winter, while the north was waiting until spring, the south could position troops and repair fortifications.
What was the significance of Bull Run?
It was the first major battle of the civil war. The confederates won so it made the War seem a lot more real to the citizens. It showed that the confederacy could hold its own against the Union Army.
What were the goals of the Radical Republican and of freed people during the Reconstruction? How did they differ, and what were the results?
Radical Republicans wished to punish the South for its secession from the Union; pushed for measures that gave economic and political rights to newly freed blacks in the South and that made it difficult for former Confederate states to rejoin the Union. Freed people wanted to wanted to make a living and have the country reunite. They wanted for a chance to be prosperous. Reconstruction was a fail and many people in the South held resentment and did not go back. It caused for lots of disagreements and issues to arise after the Civil War.
Why did Reconstruction falter?
It delayed recovery as carpet baggers from the North took control of Yankee money and taxes and poll taxes and used it for their own purposes and power. Reconstruction failed because white Southerners did not want black people to have social and economic opportunities and because Northerners did not really care about the subject one way or another.
In order for the slaves to have gotten social and economic equality, the North would have had to have focused strongly on pushing for black equality. However, they generally did not care enough to do so. The white Southerners resisted strongly because they were very opposed to the idea of blacks having equality. Because the Northerners did not really care about black equality, they did not try hard to break this opposition.
What national economic development policies did Republicans pursue during the Civil War and Reconstruction? What were the resulting achievements and costs?
Southern Republicans had ambitious policies for education, public health, and grants for road builders so they spent a ton of money then a depression hit in 1873 and the railroad company went bankrupt so the economy tanked and the money was lost
What were some of the impacts of settlement of the Great Plains and Far West on the natural environment?
The settlers beyond the Rocky Mountains needed communication with the East; and then arose the settlement of the Great Plains. Railroads, fostered by land grants, sent an increasing tide of immigrants into the Far West. Trees were chopped down and they created national parks to preserve the land. Areas in the west were dry. Irrigation was implemented. Federal Government Funding paid for dams and canal systems in the west. Indian reservations were created to give the indians a place to live.
Why did US policies toward Native Americans in this era results in so much continued violence?
They made INdian bboarding schools. And continued to try to assimilate indians into the white ways. Through the dawes severalty act in 1887, it broke up tribal land holding and gave indians individual ownership of land by dividing reservations into homesteads. The Dawes act was a disaster. In Indian territory the government took over 15 million acres for native tribes. native people lost 66% of allotted lands. Ghost Dance
In what ways did American Indians in the West respond to US encroachment on their traditional lands, and to assimilation efforts?
Indians in the West started Revolutions and attacked and killed white people. They fought and tried to rise up against America. In North Dakota, Indians were forced on to a reservation and suffered disease and starvation. The men of the tribe rose up because they could not survive on the reservation. This resulted in the largest hanging in American history.
What factors led to the rise of big business in the United States?
Companies were able to work together and create "monopolies." This helped companies make profit because people were only able to buy from them for certain products.
What roles did newly arrived immigrants play in the economy during the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
The U.S. economy changed dramatically during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as the country transformed from a rural agricultural nation to an urban industrial giant, the leading manufacturing country in the world. A number of important trends and developments characterized this tumultuous period. Between 1880 and 1921, more than 23.5 million immigrants entered the United States. This was the period of what were known as the "New" Immigrants. Prior waves of immigrants had come primarily from northern and western Europe - England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, etc. But after 1880, increasingly large numbers of immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe - Italy, Greece, the Balkan countries, Russia, Poland, etc. The majority of these immigrants settled in the cities of the Northeast and Midwest, where they took jobs as unskilled factory workers and at the same time dramatically changed the ethnic makeup of urban America. These new immigrants, many of whom were Catholic or Jewish, were viewed by many native-born Americans as being racially and culturally inferior, and Nativism became an increasingly potent force in American society and politics..
***It is important to remember that all of these developments were interlinked - none stood in isolation from the others. Take the meatpacking industry, for example. A technological innovation - the invention of the refrigerated railroad car - made it possible - using the national network of railroads - to transport perishable meat products across great distances. This also allowed for the centralization and consolidation of the meatpacking industry in Chicago -- railroads shipped the cattle and hogs in and the processed meat back out to consumers all over the country. Giant slaughterhouses displaced local butchers, and required vast numbers of unskilled workers. As a result, successive waves of immigrants from different parts of Europe swelled the population of Chicago, where extremely harsh working conditions, crippling periods of unemployment, and low wages sparked recurrent labor conflict.
What where the effects of the Chinese Exclusion Act on immigration?
It restricted Chinese laborers from coming to the US without a pass. No one new could come to the country. It split families. It was made to last 10 years and then was renewed and then it was permanently en-stated for a period of time. It caused for there to be no immigrants from China and other Asian countries were less likely to come.
Compare and contrast the accomplishment and limitations of the American Farmer-labor movements of the 1870s.
PG 550-555 CO OPS TEXAS FAMERS ALLIANCE FARMERS ALLIANCE, GREENBACKERS, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT
Why did athletics become popular in the late 19th century in the United States and how did it broaden the changes in American society/culture?
But by the late nineteenth century, more and more men worked in salaried positions or for wages. Increasing numbers also did "brainwork" in an office, rather than using their muscles outdoors. Anxieties arose that the American male was becoming, as one magazine editor warned, "weak, effeminate, decaying." One answer was athletics.
Before the Civil War, there were no distinctively American games except for Native American lacrosse. The most popular team sport was cricket. Over the next six decades, however, sports became a fundamental part of American manhood—and a big business.
One of the first promoters of physical fitness was the Young Men's Christian Association. Adapted from Britain and introduced to Boston in 1851, the YMCA combined vigorous activities for young men with an evangelizing appeal.
In cities and towns across America, the YMCA built gymnasiums and athletic facilities for men, and later women through the YWCA.
In the post-Civil War years, no other sport in America was as successful as baseball. Earlier in the century, Americans had played various stick and ball games; the version called baseball was first played in New York around 1842.
Rules continued to develop in the 1840s and 1850s, and baseball's popularity spread in military camps during the Civil War.
Big-time professional baseball arose after the war, with the launching of the National League in 1876.
American men not only rooted for professional baseball teams, but they also got out on the diamond to play. Until the 1870s, most amateur players were clerks and white-collar workers who had leisure and the income to pay for uniforms.
Shut out of white leagues, black players and fans turned instead to segregated professional teams. These had emerged as early as Reconstruction, showcasing both athletic talent and race pride.
What were some of the changes in women's lives, as well as public activities between 1877-1929?
Women's role of being bare foot pregnant and in the kitchen changed to working and holding leadership positions. They were able to get the right to vote and started to enter political positions.
Describe how America became secularized during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries.
In the late 19th and early 20th century the modern era started. As the era started America started to grow away from religion. America started to become nonreligious and did not take an active role in Christianity. Secular institutions were started and many people did not go to church
Why were the politicians of the 1850s unable to find a a lasting political compromise on the issue of slavery?
who opposed the wilmot proviso in the congressional debates over the compromise of 1850?
(T/F): The words sheriff, bailiff, township, and county point to the French influence on colonial America. pg 49
What is Parliament, and what does it do?
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