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APUSH Seton Multiple Choice, Short Answer, and Essay

Terms in this set (48)

The principal cause was the struggle for control of Prussia. This made the Seven Years War a world war. There were also things to fight about in the colonies:

Both the British and the French said they owned the Ohio country. This land was between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Both wanted it for strategic reasons, for the fur trade, and for possible future settlement.
Both European countries used Native American claims to the land. The British said it belonged to their Iroquois Indians, and the French said it belonged to their Hurons. Neither side asked what the people of the Ohio Country might want. The land supported the beaver pelt.
The British colonists feared the control of a pope in North America. France's land was controlled by the French and the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant British settlers saw this as a threat to their religious freedoms that they had under English law.

Both France (in Quebec) and England had settlements in the Ohio Valley, and each sought to control the resources there (fur, timber). Caught in the middle were the Indians (Native American tribes), who sided mostly with the French because the English settlers were building permanent settlements on their lands.
Britain and France were rival countries, and always fought for supremacy. Also, both countries believed that some of the area was owned by them. Plus, the British saw the French land being controlled by the Roman Catholic church as a threat to their religious freedom. And finally, the New World had enormous possibilities politically, socially, and especially economically.
The Legislative
The Congress is the Legislative Branch. Its main function is to pass laws. It also oversees the execution of these laws, and checks various executive and judicial powers.
The Congress is bicameral- it is composed of two houses. One house is the House of Representatives, the other is the Senate.

The Executive
The President, Vice President, and other executive officials make up the Executive Branch. The main function of this branch is to execute the laws created by Congress. The President and the Vice-President are chosen by the Electoral College, a body of persons elected for the purpose of electing the President. One may wait to consider the Electoral College in further detail.

The President appoints several Secretaries to head executive departments. An executive department is a body covering a broad topic of law- examples include the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Justice. The several secretaries (in the case of the Justice Department, the Attorney General) serve as advisors to the President and also as the chief officers of their own departments. This group of advisors is collectively known as the President's cabinet. The President nominates these Secretaries, as well as other important federal officials, and the Senate advises and consents to them.

The Judicial
The Supreme Court and the lower courts compose the Judicial Branch. The judiciary must interpret the laws of the United States. In the course of such interpretations, the courts may find that a law violates the constitution. If so, the court declares the law unconstitutional. Thus, the judiciary also has a role in determining the law of the land.

The judges of federal courts are nominated by the President and advised and consented to by the Senate. The number of judges and the exact structure of the courts is set by law, and not by the Constitution
Our historical understanding of antebellum America is heavily colored by our knowledge of the disaster that brought that era of American history to a close: the Civil War. But the people who lived through the antebellum period had no way of knowing that historians would later define their era by the war that ended it. ("Antebellum" is Latin for "pre-war.") Antebellum Americans did, however, understand and appreciate the seriousness of the increasing sectional conflict dividing the country between the slave-labor, agricultural South and the "free labor," industrializing North.

Antebellum culture in America reflected the growing sectional crisis, at times seeking to pave over sectional differences and at other times making light of them. Congressmen pushed through a "gag rule" so that the difficult subject of slavery would simply be made taboo in the chambers of government. Playwrights invented "vernacular characters" that represented the Yankee of the North and the Cavalier of the South; these exaggerated embodiments of regional stereotypes enabled audiences to chuckle at the idiosyncrasies of each group. Sometimes, however, the differences between North and South were less pronounced than the similarities; while only southerners enslaved black people, white Americans from both North and South overwhelmingly embraced anti-black racism. White people in the North rubbed burnt cork or coal on their faces to perform in "blackface," mimicking ludicrous stereotypes of African-Americans to entertain each other. This blackface minstrelsy was obviously deeply racist, but the popular form of entertainment was actually more complicated than that. The performances revealed how northerners were simultaneously fascinated by black people and derisive of them; onstage mocking of blacks provided relief for working-class whites' anxieties over their own social status as hourly wage laborers.
1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South.

With Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor, i.e. slaves. Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order.

2. States versus federal rights.

Since the time of the Revolution, two camps emerged: those arguing for greater states rights and those arguing that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the US after the American Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. The thirteen states formed a loose confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weakness of this form of government caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the US Constitution. Strong proponents of states rights like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were not present at this meeting. Many felt that the new constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to act independently. They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied states this right. However, proponents such as John C. Calhoun fought vehemently for nullification. When nullification would not work and states felt that they were no longer respected, they moved towards secession.

3. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.

As America began to expand, first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War, the question of whether new states admitted to the union would be slave or free. The Missouri Compromise passed in 1820 made a rule that prohibited slavery in states from the former Louisiana Purchase the latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes north except in Missouri. During the Mexican War, conflict started about what would happen with the new territories that the US expected to gain upon victory. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846 which would ban slavery in the new lands. However, this was shot down to much debate. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between slave and free states, northern and southern interests. One of the provisions was the fugitive slave act that was discussed in number one above. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free or slave. The real issue occurred in Kansas where pro-slavery Missourians began to pour into the state to help force it to be slave. They were called "Border Ruffians." Problems came to a head in violence at Lawrence Kansas. The fighting that occurred caused it to be called "Bleeding Kansas." The fight even erupted on the floor of the senate when antislavery proponent Charles Sumner was beat over the head by South Carolina's Senator Preston Brooks.

4. Growth of the Abolition Movement.

Increasingly, the northerners became more polarized against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John Brown's Raid, and the passage of the fugitive slave act that held individuals responsible for harboring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-slave states.

5. The election of Abraham Lincoln.

Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession." They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests. Before Lincoln was even president, seven states had seceded from the Union: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
The north had the anaconda plan
The south had the cotton diplomacy.

Before the war started the north had most if not all of the major factories. The south had most of the agricultre cotton wheat etc. The north was stragling the souths cash flow and economic development. When the southern states complained in Washington it fell on deaf ears. The South then voted to suceed from the union. Most of the orginized military was already in the north. Milita and volunteers in the South. The south found them selves in a rock and a hard place. Slavery was an issue but not the main issue as you are led to believe. With no regular army out dated weapons and little to no manufacturing the south did pretty well. If they could have planed better and built a military things may be different today. Kinda scarey.

North (Advantage) Had almost 4 times as many free citizens

South (Advantage) Defending their homeland gave them a strong reason to fight

North (Advantage) Had many people to grow food and to work in factories making supplies

South (Advantage) Had skills that made them good soldiers

North (Advantage) Had more than 70% of the nation's rail lines

South (Advantage) Many of the best officers in the United States were from the South

North (Advantage) Had a strong navy and a large fleet of private trading ships

Two big advantages were the raw materials and the weather. The North had the manufacturing capabilities to manufacture the items needed to make war, but the South had the raw materials. The coal and the textiles. The other advantage was the weather. The winter was a hardship on the northern troops, quite often forcing them to hunker down and wait out storms. Not to mention slowing supply lines. Whereas, in the South, they could make war year round. In the winter, while the north was waiting until spring, the south could position troops and repair fortifications.
The U.S. economy changed dramatically during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as the country transformed from a rural agricultural nation to an urban industrial giant, the leading manufacturing country in the world. A number of important trends and developments characterized this tumultuous period. Between 1880 and 1921, more than 23.5 million immigrants entered the United States. This was the period of what were known as the "New" Immigrants. Prior waves of immigrants had come primarily from northern and western Europe - England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, etc. But after 1880, increasingly large numbers of immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe - Italy, Greece, the Balkan countries, Russia, Poland, etc. The majority of these immigrants settled in the cities of the Northeast and Midwest, where they took jobs as unskilled factory workers and at the same time dramatically changed the ethnic makeup of urban America. These new immigrants, many of whom were Catholic or Jewish, were viewed by many native-born Americans as being racially and culturally inferior, and Nativism became an increasingly potent force in American society and politics..

***It is important to remember that all of these developments were interlinked - none stood in isolation from the others. Take the meatpacking industry, for example. A technological innovation - the invention of the refrigerated railroad car - made it possible - using the national network of railroads - to transport perishable meat products across great distances. This also allowed for the centralization and consolidation of the meatpacking industry in Chicago -- railroads shipped the cattle and hogs in and the processed meat back out to consumers all over the country. Giant slaughterhouses displaced local butchers, and required vast numbers of unskilled workers. As a result, successive waves of immigrants from different parts of Europe swelled the population of Chicago, where extremely harsh working conditions, crippling periods of unemployment, and low wages sparked recurrent labor conflict.
But by the late nineteenth century, more and more men worked in salaried positions or for wages. Increasing numbers also did "brainwork" in an office, rather than using their muscles outdoors. Anxieties arose that the American male was becoming, as one magazine editor warned, "weak, effeminate, decaying." One answer was athletics.
Before the Civil War, there were no distinctively American games except for Native American lacrosse. The most popular team sport was cricket. Over the next six decades, however, sports became a fundamental part of American manhood—and a big business.
One of the first promoters of physical fitness was the Young Men's Christian Association. Adapted from Britain and introduced to Boston in 1851, the YMCA combined vigorous activities for young men with an evangelizing appeal.
In cities and towns across America, the YMCA built gymnasiums and athletic facilities for men, and later women through the YWCA.
In the post-Civil War years, no other sport in America was as successful as baseball. Earlier in the century, Americans had played various stick and ball games; the version called baseball was first played in New York around 1842.
Rules continued to develop in the 1840s and 1850s, and baseball's popularity spread in military camps during the Civil War.
Big-time professional baseball arose after the war, with the launching of the National League in 1876.
American men not only rooted for professional baseball teams, but they also got out on the diamond to play. Until the 1870s, most amateur players were clerks and white-collar workers who had leisure and the income to pay for uniforms.
Shut out of white leagues, black players and fans turned instead to segregated professional teams. These had emerged as early as Reconstruction, showcasing both athletic talent and race pride.