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Sensation and Perception Exam 2
Terms in this set (12)
What are feature detectors? What is the function of the complex and end-stopped feature detectors in the primary visual cortex? How could complex and end-stopped cells work based on the information they receive from the eye (including drawings)? What are hyper columns and tiling?
Feature detectors are edge detectors and respond to stimuli that have specific characteristics. Complex cells function by responding to stimuli with a particular moving orientation. End-stopped cells function by responding to stimuli with a particular line orientation. Hypercolumns are 1 mm in size and serves one location on the retina.
Describe the what pathway of vision. What evidence supports the idea that we have a what pathway (use monkey study, agnosia)? What modules exist in this pathway and what is the evidence (one well described study will be enough -- look for this part under the object identification?
The what pathway gets information from the p pathway and focuses on color and detail. The monkey study showed that with damage to the inferno temporal cortex or parietal lobe, the monkeys would have had trouble determining where the snack was located. The modules that exist are the fusiform face area (FFA), which recognizes faces, the extra striate body area (EBA), which focuses on body part processing, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA), which focuses on indoor/outdoor scenes and real world environments.
What evidence supports the idea that we have a where/how pathway (use the monkey study, blindsight) what are the specialized neurons that exist in this pathway and what is the evidence (one well described study will be enough)
Those with blindsight have a problem with seeing objects but can maneuver around their environments; they cannot see but are able to avoid obstacles in their environment by navigating. The specialized neurons are motor dominant neurons that are in charge of controlling, reacting and grasping. Evidence that supports this is when a monkey is looking at a light switch, the neurons are not shown because there is non-goal directed behavior. When pressing the light switch however, the neurons are responding because a goal is being achieved.
Describe the way in which the trichromatic theory works. Draw the curves of the firing rates of the cones to help explain your answer. How do metamers support this concept?
Trichromatic theory is when red, green and blue light are used to come up with every color in the spectrum by varying the intensity of each light. Metamers support this concept because the lights are physically different but creates a psychophysical color match, similar to the trichromatic theory.
What is the difference between color blindness and color deficiencies? Why do we need at least 2 cones to perceive color? Describe the different types of color deficiencies and explain how they are related to trichromatic and opponent process theory
Color blindness is when we are unable to perceive color because we must have at least two working cones to perceive color. Color deficiency is when we do not have specific wavelength cones which creates a deficiency in R-G light. We need at least two wavelengths to see color because they hold components of light and hue. Protanopia is when there are no wavelength cones which causes them to have a measurement of 492 NM. Deuteronopia is when there are no medium wavelength cones which causes them to have a measurement of 498 NM.
What is color and lightness constancy? How do wavelength compare between inside and outside light? How do adaptation, the surroundings , and memory influence it (give appropriate experiments)
Lightness constancy is when were able to see the relative reflectance of an object despite changes in illumination. In memory, we know that objects do not change shade or what color something is.
What are the pictorial depth cues? Give an example of each (draw examples)
Pictoral depth cues are static/nonmoving pictures. Overlap/occlusion is when 1 object partly hides are obstructs the view of the 2nd object. Relative size is when the more distant an object is, t he less space it will take up and vice versa. Familiar size is when we judge things based on our knowledge of the object's size.
What part of the electromagnetic spectrum can humans view? What are the properties of light/ Describe them in terms of their physical characteristics and corresponding perception.
Humans can view VIBGYOR. The properties of light are that the wavelength, frequency, amplitude/intensity, and purity. Light is additive and mix wavelength, RBG ends up with white light. Paint is subtractive and mix paints. R,Y,B ends up with black.
What are the motion illusions? How do we get these experiences.
Motion illusions are perceived motion even when there is no motion. Apparent motion is when stationary stimulus is separated by time and location are perceived as moving. Induced motion is when small objects look like they are moving because a larger object is moving. The Motion After Effect is when you look at movement then look at a stationary object that would create the illusion of seeing motion in the opposite.
How do we perceive motion using the ecological/behavioral approach.
We perceive motion through depth cues, which is motion parallax, accretion and deletion, and texture changes.
How do we perceive using the physiological/corollary discharge theory? Make sure to draw and label images. Describe all possibilities covered in class.
object moving - eye stationary
IDS - YES, CDS - NO
eye moving - object stationary
IDS - YES, CDS - NO
object moving - eye moving
IDS - NO, CDS - YES
eye stationary - object stationary
IDS - NO, CDS - NO
What are the purposes/functions of morion? What is our velocity threshold and what factors influence it? give 3 detailed examples of how biological motion can help perception (what can we detect just through motion). Where in the brain is biological motion coded.
Motion is the relative change in position of objects over time. We are better at perceiving motion if the object is in the peripheral fovea. Biological motion helps with perception when an individual is looking at the movement of a person or some other living organism. This motion is coded in the superior temporal sulcus. In the point light walker display video, we are able to make specific determinations of characteristics. If a figure is moving with emphasis in the hips, you are able to assume that the person moving is a woman. If that same display showed a figure bouncing, it can be assumed to be a rabbit. Another example would be two figures moving erratically, indicating two people dancing.
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