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71 terms

EMT Basic - AAOS - Chapter 8

Vocab from the AAOS Emergency Care and Transportation Book 10th Edition.
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accessory muscles
The secondary muscles of respiration. They include the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoids), the chest pectoralis major muscles, and the abdominal muscles.
auscultate
To listen to sounds within an organ with a stethoscope.
AVPU scale
A method of assessing the level of consciousness by determining whether the patient is awake and alert, responsive to verbal stimuli or pain, or unresponsive; used principally early in the assessment process.
blood pressure
The pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the arteries.
bradycardia
A slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
breath sounds
An indication of air movement in the lungs, usually assessed with a stethoscope.
capillary refill
A test that evaluates distal circulatory system function by squeezing (blanching) blood from an area such as a nail bed and watching the speed of its return after releasing the pressure.
capnography
A noninvasive method that can quickly and efficiently provide information on a patient's ventilatory status, circulation, and metabolism.
capnometry
The use of a capnometer, a device that measures the amount of expired carbon dixoide.
carbon dioxide
A component of air that typically makes up 0.3% of air at sea level; also a waste product exhaled during expiration by the respiratory system.
chief complaint
The reason a patient called for help; also, the patient's response to questions such as "What's wrong?" or "What happened?"
coagulate
To form a clot to plug an opening in an injured blood vessel and stop bleeding.
colorimetric devices
Capnometer or end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors are devices that use a chemical reaction to detect the amount of carbon dioxide present in expired gases by changing colors (qualitative measurement rather than quantitative).
conjunctiva
The delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the eye.
crepitus
A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
cyanosis
A bluish gray skin color that is caused by a reduced level of oxygen in the blood.
DCAP-BTLS
A mnemonic for assessment in which each area of the body is evaluated for Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures/penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations, and Swelling.
diaphoretic
Characterized by profuse sweating.
diastolic pressure
The pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is at rest.
end-tidal CO2
The amount of carbon dioxide present in exhaled breath.
focused assessment
A type of physical assessment that is typically performed on patients who have sustained nonsignificant mechanisms of injury or on responsive medical patients. This type of examination is based on the chief complaint and focuses on one body system or part
frostbite
Damage to tissues as the result of exposure to cold; frozen or partially frozen body parts are frostbitten
full-body scan
A systematic head-to-toe examination that is performed during the secondary assessment on a patient who has sustained a significant mechanism of injury, is unconscious, or is in critical condition (Pg 291 - 295)
general impression
The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surroundings, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms, and the chief complaint
Golden Period
The time from injury to definitive care, during which treatment of shock and traumatic injuries should occur because survival potential is best
guarding
Involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) of the abdominal wall in an effort to protect an inflamed abdomen; a sign of peritonitis
history taking
A step within the patient assessment process that provides detail about the patient's chief complaint and an account of the patient's signs and symptoms
hypertension
Blood pressure that is higher than the normal range
hypotension
Blood pressure that is lower than the normal range
hypothermia
A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95°F (35°C), usually as a result of prolonged exposure to cool or freezing temperatures
incident command system (ICS)
A system implemented to manage disasters and mass-casualty incidents in which section chiefs, including finance, logistics, operations, and planning, report to the incident commander
jaundice
Yellow skin or sclera that is caused by liver disease or dysfunction
labored breathing
Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of accessory muscles
mechanism of injury (MOI)
The way in which traumatic injuries occur; the forces that act on the body to cause damage
nasal flaring
Flaring out of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction
nature of illness (NOI)
The general type of illness a patient is experiencing
OPQRST
An abbreviation for key terms used in evaluating a patient's pain: Onset, Provocation or Palliation, Quality, Region/radiation, Severity, and Timing of pain
orientation
The mental status of a patient as measured by memory of person (name), place (current location), time (current year, month, and approximate date), and event (what happened)
palpate
To examine by touch
paradoxical motion
The motion of the portion of the chest wall that is detached in a flail chest; the motion—in during inhalation, out during exhalation—is exactly the opposite of normal chest wall motion during breathing
perfusion
Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet current needs of the cells
personal protective equipment (PPE)
Clothing or specialized equipment that provides protection to the wearer
pertinent negatives
Negative findings that warrant no care or intervention
primary assessment
A step within the patient assessment process that identifies and initiates treatment of immediate and potential life threats
pulse
The pressure wave that occurs as each heartbeat causes a surge in the blood circulating through the arteries
pulse oximetry
An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds
rales
A crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles
reassessment
A step within the patient assessment process that is performed at regular intervals to identify and treat changes in a patient's condition, A patient in unstable condition should be reassessed every 5 minutes, whereas a patient in stable condition should be reassessed every 15 minutes
responsiveness
The way in which a patient responds to external stimuli, including verbal stimuli (sound), tactile stimuli (touch), and painful stimuli
retractions
Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration
rhonchi
Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways
SAMPLE history
A brief history of a patient's condition to determine signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, pertinent past history, last oral intake, and events leading to the injury or illness
scene size-up
A step within the patient assessment process that involves a quick assessment of the scene and the surroundings to provide information about scene safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness before you enter and begin patient care
sclera
The tough, fibrous, white portion of the eye that protects the more delicate inner structures
secondary assessment
A step within the patient assessment process in which a systematic physical examination of the patient is performed, The examination may be a systematic full-body scan or a systematic assessment that focuses on a certain area or region of the body, often determined through the chief complaint
shallow respirations
Respirations that are charcterized by little movement of the chest wall (reduced tidal volume) or poor chest excursion
sign
Objective findings that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled, or measured
sniffing position
An upright position in which the patient's head and chin are thrust slightly forward to keep the airway open
spontaneous respirations
Breathing that occurs with no assistance
standard precautions
Protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for use in dealing with objects, blood, body fluids, and other potential exposure risks of communicable disease
stridor
A high-pitched noise heard primarily on inspiration
subcutaneous emphysema
A characteristic crackling sensation felt on palpation of the skin caused by the presence of air in soft tissues
symptom
Subjective findings that the patient feels but that can be identified only by the patient
systolic pressure
The increased pressure in an artery with each contraction of the ventricles (systole)
tachycardia
A rapid heart rate, more than 100 beats/min
tidal volume
The amount of air (in milliliters) that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath
triage
The process of sorting patients based on the severity of injury and medical need to establish treatment and transportation priorities
tripod position
An upright position in which the patient leans forward onto two arms stretched forward and thrusts the head and chin forward
two- to three-word dyspnea
A severe breathing problem in which a patient can speak only two to three words at a time without pausing to take a breath
vasoconstriction
Narrowing of a blood vessel, such as with hypoperfusion or cold extremeties
vital signs
The key signs that are used to evaluate the patient's overall condition, including respirations, pulse, blood pressure, level of consciousness, and skin characteristics