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List 3 broad carcinogenic agents.
What type of carcinogens require metabolic conversion by cytochrome P450 in the liver?
What are the 2 players in chemical carcinogenesis?
initiator: causes mutation in cell
promotor: causes clonal expansion of initiated cells through enzyme activation or by mutation
What 2 factors determine the degree of damage due to UV radiation?
intensit of exposure and quantity
List 3 ways in which ionizing radiation is carcinogenic.
ionization of macromolecules and generation of free radicals
How does HTLV-1 cause tumor formation?
Tax causes instability and mutation in host cell genes leading to T-cell proliferation
List 4 classes of genes affected by carcinogens.
tumor suppressor genes
apoptosis regulating genes
mutator (caretaker) genes
Normal genes that play key roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation.
List 3 changes in gene structure that can cause activation of oncogenes.
List 5 classes of oncoproteins.
growth factor receptors
signal transduction proteins
nuclear (transcription) regulatory factors
cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases (cell cycle)
How many alleles must be mutated to disrupt the function of tumor suppressor genes?
both (homozygous mutation)
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