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Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Body

STUDY
PLAY
anatomy
study of an organism and its parts
physiology
study of the functions of those parts
pathology
study of diseases
levels of organization
chemical level
cellular level
tissues
organs
organ systems
chemical level
atoms/molevules
cellular level
cells-smallest living unit; billions in body
tissues
organization of similar cells that act togeth to perform a common function
organs
group of several kinds of tissues arranged to act to perform a specific function
organ systems
numerous kinds of organs arranged to perform complex functions for body
correct anatomical positioning
standing upright, feet together, arms at sides, palms facing front
3 planes that cut the body
transversal/horizontal plane
median/saggital plane
frontal/coronal plane
transversal/horizontal plane
upper/lower body
median/saggital plane
halves/left and right
frontal/coronal plane
front/back
anterior (ventral) vs. posterior (dorsal)
front vs. back
proximal vs. distal
towards the core vs. away from core
superior vs. inferior
above vs. below
medial vs. lateral
towards the midline vs. away from the midline
superficial vs. deep
external vs. internal
Two Major Cavities
dorsal and ventral
dorsal cavity
contains cranial cavity and spinal cavity
ventral cavity
contains thoracic, pleural, abdominopelvic
divisions of thoracic cavity
pleural (left and right) cavity
mediastinum
pleural cavity
lungs
mediastinum
trachea, heart, blood vessels
abdominal cavity
liver, GB, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, parts of large intestine
pelvic cavity
lower colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs
cranial cavity
brain
spinal cavity
spinal chord
quadrants of abdominopelvic cavity
right hypochondriac; epigastric region; left hypochondriac region
right lumbar region; umbilical region; left lumbar region
right iliac region; hypogastric region; left iliac region
homeostasis
relative constancy of the internal environment
feed back loops
sensor
control center
effector
sensor
something that is detecting the change
control center
area that recognizes the change and initiates a correction (almost always the brain)
effector
controls the effect on the change
facial
face
frontal
forehead
nasal
nose
oral
mouth
orbital/opthalmic
eyes
zygomatic
upper cheek
abdominal
anterior torso below diaphragm
antecubital
depressed area just in front of the elbow
brachial
arm
carpal
wrist
cervical
neck
crural
leg
cutaneous
skin/body surface
dorsal
back
gluteal
buttock
lumbar
lower back between ribs and pelvis
occipital
back of lower skull
palmar
palm of hand
pelvic
lower portion of torso
plantar
sole of foot
supraclavicular
area above clavical
temporal
side of skull
umbilical
area around navel
antebrachial
forearm
axillary
armpit
buccal
cheek
cephalic
head
cranial
skull
cubital
elbow
digital
fingers/toes
femoral
thigh
inguinal
groin
mammary
breast
olecranal
back of elbow
pedal
foot
perineal
area between anas and genitals
popliteal
area behind knee
tarsal
ankle
thoracic
chest
volar
palm/sole