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occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals
the average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time; can be classified by temperature, humidity, precipitation, and vegetation
each layer in a soil profile--horizon A (top layer of soil), horizon B (middle layer), and horizon C (bottom layer)
dark-colored, decayed organic matter that supplies nutrients to plants and is found mainly in topsoil
Mechanical weathering process that occurs when water freezes in the cracks of rocks and expands, causing the rock to break apart
twigs, leaves, and other organic material that help prevent erosion and hold water and may eventually be changed into humus by decomposing organisms
physical process by which rock is split or broken into smaller pieces without changing its chemical composition, disintegration; can be caused by animals, ice wedging, and plant roots
Method for reducing soil erosion; plant stalks are left in the field after harvesting and the next year's crop is planted within the stalks without plowing.
chemical weathering process that occurs when some minerals are exposed to oxygen and water over time
mixture of weathered rock and mineral fragments, decayed organic material, water, and air that can take thousands of years to develop
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