119 terms

AP Comparative Government Midterm

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Tony Blair
Leader of the labour party in GB in 1997. He won in a landslide of votes. Tried to move the labour party away from the left and more toward the center. Responsible for: Bank of England owned by nongovernment workers, Devolution for Scottland and Wales, Reducing hereditary peers powers in the House of Lords, Pressuring public schools for scholarships, Good Friday Agreement in Norhtern Ireland
Thomas Hobbs
A philosopher that had the idea of stability and order and didn't wasnt men to be at war with other men; he emphasized this through the Social Contract
Social Contract
-the voluntary agreement among individuals by which, according to any of various theories, as of Hobbes, Locke, or Rousseau, organized society is brought into being and invested with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the relations among its members.

-an agreement for mutual benefit between an individual or group and the government or community as a whole.
Tsar Nicholos II
The Tsar of Russia until 1917 when he is pressured to step down voluntary and the Tsar picked his brother to be the next Tsar but his brother was not interested in being a monarch and handed it off the the Provisional Government who temporarily was the Duma
Gordon Brown
- When Blair resigns from office, the party picks Gordon Brown as next PM, and he waits until his final term is up to hold election and he loses to Cameron in the 2010 election
- This British politician was born in 1951 and served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1997 to 2007(Before he got picked to be PM). A member of Parliament since 1983, successor of Tony Blair.
James II
(r. 1685-1688) a Catholic king who greatly angered Parliament nobles and whose actions led to the Glorious Revolution
Elizabeth II
Queen of England, 1952-Present
Vladimir Putin/Russian President Role
-Current President of Russia, Head of State, Member of United Russia, Can hold two 6-year terms, must be 35 years old, Russian Citizen, live in Russia for 10 years, selected by popular vote
-Major Powers: appoints PM, selects constitutional court, executive decree: veto power over bills passed, dissolve parliament and call for new elections
David Cameron/PM of GB role
-Current PM of Great Britain, Member of the Conservative Party, Head of Government, Determined by being the leader of the largest party in HOC
-Major Powers: oversees the operation of the Civil Service and government agencies, appoints members of the government, is the principal government figure in the House of Commons
Vladimir Lenin
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 (Bolshevik Revolution) which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
Margaret Thatcher
Right Wing Conservative PM from 1979-1990. She was a Euroskeptic that stood for: Privitizing public companies and houses, lowering tax incomes
-Voted out of office because she was a ideology and would not give in to the people on the poll tax
John Locke
Philosopher who thought that the original state of nature was not bad because people lived in equality, tolerance and natural rights. *No one is born bias, racist, etc.
- Formed Civil Society
-People form government and therefore the people owe it to the government to obey the laws
-Government has a responsibility to protect life, liberty, and property
Boris Yeltsin
- "Hero of the 1991 and 1993 coup"
-Yeltsin wasn't liked because people considered him to be "in the way" of them trying to regain communism
-1993 Coup: Yeltsin is ahead of members of congress who are still pro-communism and Yeltsin gets the army to fight for his side and they defeat congress in the white house
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Karl Marx
- German Philospoher who pushed for communism
-Theory of Socialism
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope(wanted annulment because his wife could not give him boys to pass on the legacy), England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Dmitri Medvedev
- elected president in 2008 after Putin stepped down to stay on as Prime Minister but not current prime minister
-Falls to Putin in 2012
-Current PM
Chancellor of the Exchequer
-Treasury Minister
-Second most powerful position in the British Government
-Controls the budget: therefore if the treasury minister doesn't like you --> you're in trouble
Fixed Term Parliamentary Act 2011
Parliamentary elections must be held every five years
Iraq War
UK Supports US: attacks Al Qaeda/Afghanistan, Topple Iraq's Saddan Hussain, Ally to the US
Permanent Secretary
-Spend lives working in same department
-Experts at what they do and are respected more than a cabinet minister
-When they get into their late 60s-70s the UK has a ceremony where they formally "knight" them and it's a signal for them to step down --> Resign with Dignity
Supreme Court
Supreme in all matters inder English and Welsh Law, the highest appeals court
Conservative Party
-Right of the Center party that is usually in power
-Euroskeptic
-Free Enterprise/Social Darwinism
Labour Party
-Founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the intersects of the urban working class
-Euroskeptics
-Higher Taxes on wealthy
-Gov regulation/ownership
Liberal Democratic Party
Emphasizes civil rights of all citiens, protection of private property
Scottish National Party
-Center-Left party which campaigns or Scottish independence
-Most Popular party in Scottland
Good Friday Agreement
1. Consociation: Blair told Protestants and Catholics of North Ireland to work together to do stuff and also give NI a legislature but the legislature has 2 cabinets of protestants and catholics but they both have a veto meaning inorder to make things for NI both sides have to agree
2. Ira agreed to disarm in front of protestant ministers
3. Release IRA prisoners
4.Partition- each side votes to accept that North Ireland will never be apart of the Irish Republic bc irish republic was sick of the fighting
Question Hour
time reserved in the house of commons for opposition to challenge cabinet on policy issues
Trade Union Congress (TUC)
National trade union center in England and Wales
Confederation of Business Industries
- UK's leading business organization
- 240,000 business incorporated by the royal character
-Mission to promote the conditions in which all can prosper for the benefit of all
House of Commons
-Elected by popular vote (plurality)
-Party with most votes wins large # of seats and head of party is the PM
-Makes/votes on laws
-Can change the constitution anytime
-Pass laws
-Vote of no confidence
House of Lords
-Hereditary/Lifetime peers
-2 powers: delay a bill for 30 days/2 years, Amend a bill but the HOC doesn't have to pay attention to it
2010 General Election
need 326 seats to have the majority and the conservatives got 307, new labour got 358 so conservatives and liberal democrats formed a coalition
Devolution
Central government gives power to the outer regions
IRA
Anti-British militants who seek the unification of all of Ireland
National Health Care Service
All of UK gets health care provided by the government
Speech From the Throne
Opening speech that outlines the government's agenda, given by the PM
UKIP
- UK Independent Party
- Right wing (Euroskeptic)
Bolshevik Revolution
1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I.
Democratic Centralism
Higher levels in the CPSU elect lower levels who were selected from above
Liberal Democratic Party (Russia)
-LDP
- a far-right political party in the Russian Federation. The charismatic and controversial Vladimir Zhirinovsky has led the party since its founding in 1991
-Opposes communism and capitalism
State Duma
- 5-year terms
-Elected by Proportional Representation
-Powers: pass laws, impeachment, vote of no confidence in PM
-Lower chamber
-450 seats
Chechnya
A republic of Russia that has experienced some of the worst violence because they wanted independence
Federation Council
-No Term Limit
-Upper Chamber
-Elected: 2 from each district; 1 selected by a govener and 1 selected by a legislature
-Powers: approve of Russian troops being sent out, approve of any internal border change, removes president after impeachment
Marrxism/Leninism
The idea of socialism/communism in Russia
United Russia Party
-Party of Putin
-Political party put together by the oligarchs of Russia to support Putin. Currently the dominant party in Russian politics, although it lacks a coherent ideology.
Communist Party
A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I Lenin originally the russian Bolshevik
Glasnost/Perestroika
Gorbachev's "openness" reform pertaining with the media
Provisional Government
A temporary government created by the Duma after the abdication of the Tsar; it made the decision to remain in World War One, costing it the support of the soviets and the people.
Yabloko Party
A Russian social liberal party founded by Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Sergey Mitrokhin, a former opposition member of the Moscow City Duma and State Duma.
Constitutional Court
-Selected: by president and approved by upper house
-No term limit
-Powers: deals with violations to constitution only, makes sure laws abide by constitution
KGB/FSB
- Security police who protect a regime from its critics
- Putin was part of this
Politburo
- The decision body making of the soviet union
-12-18 people
- 1 female in the poltiburo in history
- Russian Men occupied it
USSR
- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
- Took over after the Provisional Government/ Civil war
Alternative Voting
A system of voting in where the candidates in order of preference. If no candidate gets more than 50% of first-preference votes, the votes for the bottom candidate are redistributed according to the voters' next preference
Bicameral/Unicameral
Bi: consisting of two chambers in the legislature
Uni: Consisting of one chamber in the legislature
Cabinet
A group of advisers to the PM
Coalition Government
When two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature. This form of government is quite common in the multiparty systems of Europe.
Demography
The science of population changes
Failed State
A state so weak that its political structures collapse, leading to anarchy and violence
Head of Government
The executive role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the state, such as formulating and executing policy.
Head of State
The executive role that symbolizes and represents the people both nationally and internationally.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Liberal
A person whose views favor more govt involvemnt in business, social welfare, minority rights, & increased govt spending
Illiberal
A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.
Nation
People drawn together based on religion, race, social clevage, political view, etc.
State
People drawn together based on boundaries
Parliamentary System
- A form of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major part of the ruling coalition
-A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president, a system of government in which both executive and legislative functions reside in an elected assembly. The head of the government must be a current member of the legislature.
Presidential System
- A system of government in which the legislative and executive branches operate independently of each other
- Citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as executive branch leaders.
Proletariat
Karl Marx's term for the working class in a capitalist society.
Referendum
Vote on an issue rather than a person for electio
Seperation of Powers
The division of a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilites and authorities.
Socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Threshold
In a proportional representation system, a party must be above the "threshold" inorder to have seats in congress (be above a certain percent of the votes)
Authoritarian/Totalitarian
Where there is a dictator and the government is in control of everything including your life
Bureaucracy
organization of government workers
Civil Society
- Associations larger than the family but not part of government
-Pluralistic values
- 4 components: trust, honesty, toleration, and compromise
Consociation
a democratic system designed to ease communal tensions via the principles of recognizing the existence of specific groups and granting some share of power in the central government to each, usually codified in specific legal or constitutional guarantees to each group
Developing Countries
A country that has not progressed adequatley with regard to economic, mortality and demographic indicators.
Economic Determinism
A branch of Marxism which says that societies are determined by their economies (or economic systems)
Federal
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Unitary
A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Hung Parliament
a situation after an election when no single party comprises a majority in the Commons
Infant Mortality Rate
Percentage of infants born each year that live
Life Expectancy
How long a gender is estimated to live
- A problem in Russia because their life expectancy is low due to suicide, alcoholism, depression
Normative
- Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
- Derived from the belief which is considered normal or standard or typical
Empirical
Based on practical experience rather than theory
Party Discipline
the tendency for legislators that belong to the same party to vote the same way on a given bill
Privatization
Companies owning themselves as opposed to government owning companies
Proportional Representation
Seats in the legislature based on the percentage of votes a party receives - usually has a threshold
Republic
Form of government without a monarch
Shadow Cabinet
In systems like Britain's, the official leadership of the opposition party that "shadows" the cabinet.
Soverignty
Having absolute authority in government
Vanguard
The foremost part of an army; the leading position in any field
Backbencher
Legislators who do not hold leadership positions within their party caucus or conference.
Frontbencher
member of house of commons who holds a position in the gov/cabinet
Capitalism
- A system based on the ideas of free enterprise and social darwinism
- An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Collectivization
Collectivization in the Soviet Union was enforced under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms: mainly kolkhozy and sovkhozy. The Soviet leadership was confident that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would immediately increase the food supply for urban population, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, and agricultural exports.
Double Ballot/Runoff Election
majority runoff; a version of single-member district election in which voting happens in two stages (with a majority needed to win the first stage and more votes than any other party needed to win the second stage, after the number of parties are trimmed down)
Established Church
In England, the Anglical church is the official church of the UK and citizens there have to pay in their taxes to support this church
First Past the Post
Electoral system based on single-member districts in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
Ideology
- A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
- Being "inflexible" to change
Judicial Review
a procedure where a court can review administrative action by a public body
Lifetime/Hereditary Peers
Lifetime: getting to be in the House of Lords because you did something great or heroic for the country
Hereditary: The right to be in the House of Lords is in your family and it is passed down to you and then to your kids
Oligarch
A government ruled by a few powerful people
Pluralism
A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing.
Public Schools
- Private schools in the UK that prepare students to hold public office
- Very expensive to attend and this causes unjustness because poor people can never go to these schools/ hold public office one day
Radical
...
Secular
Keeping the church and state seperated
Shock Therapy
Boris Yeltsin's theory of introducing the free market quickly and unexpectedly
Socialization
Creation of voluntary associations and institutions which relate to economic and social goals, to cultural and recreational activities, to sport, to various professions, and to political affairs
Vote of Confidence
Vote taken by a legislature as to whether its members continue to support the current prime minister. Depending on the country, a vote of no confidence can force the resignation of the prime minister and/or lead to new parliamentary elections.
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Human Development Index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
European Union
A family of democratic countries committed to working together for peace and prosperity in Europe.
EU Monetary System
...
Third World
Also known as developing nations; nations outside the capitalist industrial nations of the first world and the industrialized communist nations of the second world; generally less economically powerful, but with varied economies.
First World
The group of nation-states that possesses mature industrialized economies based on capitalistic production.
GDP per Captia
- a measure of the average person's contribution to generating a country's wealth in a year
- measures productivity of workers
-amount of goods produced by each person per year