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Chapter 1

Body Planes Directional Terms Motions Topography Equine Topography Bovine Topography Body Cavities Bental Terms
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toward the tip of the nose
Rostral
toward the head
Cranial
toward the tail
Caudal
toward the back of a standing animal
Dorsal
toward the belly of a standing animal
Ventral
away from the body
Distal
toward the body
Proximal
away from the median plane
Lateral
toward the median plane
Medial
toward tail end of the body; toward feet on humans
Inferior
toward head end of body; on humans
Superior
toward the surface of the body or a body part
Superficial
toward the center of the body or body part
Deep
the back of the hind leg distal to the tarsus
Plantar
back suface of the front leg distal to the carpus
Palmar
lying on the dorsal body surface with the vetral surface facing up
Dorsal Recumbent
lying on the side
Lateral Recumbent
lying on the ventral body surface with the dorsal surface facing up
Sternal Recumbent
body is tilted between dorsal or sternal recumbency and later recumbency
Oblique Recumbent
decrease angle between bones
Flexion
increase angle between bones
Extension
move away from median of body
Abduction
move toward median of body
Adduction
turning the hand so that the palm is forward
Supination
to turn downward or backward as with the hand or foot
Pronation
circular movement of a limb or eye
Circumduction
extension of the foot so that the toes point downward as in standing on tiptoe
Plantarflexion
the act of bending backward (of the body or a body part)
Dorsiflexion
bending to the side
Lateral Flexion
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
Internal Rotation
Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the midline
External Rotation
the act of turning inside out
Inversion
turning sole outward; weight on inner edge of the foot
Eversion
part of the proximal from limb between shoulder and elbow
Brachium
part of front limb between elbow and carpus
Antebrachium
part of distal front limb between carpus and digits
Manus
part of rear limb between hip and stifle
Thigh
part of rear limb between stifle and tarsus
Crus
part of distal rear limb between tarsus and digits
Pes
residual in the dog, present in cats
Clavicle
Region beween the anus and reproductive organs
Perineal Region
lower right and left region near the groin (inguin/o= groin), which is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body. This region, on right and left, is also known as the iliac region because it is near the ilium, which is the upper portion of the hip bone
Inguinal Region
irregular oval scar located on the midline; attachment site of the umbilical cord for the fetus (the "belly button")
Umbilicus
"white line", fusion of abdominal aponeurosis(fascia) along the midline
Linea Alba
pertaining to the neck
Cervical
pertaining to the chest
thoracic
area of back between ribs and hips
Lumbar
area between hips
Sacral
tail bone
Coccygeal
top of the head between the bases of the ears
Poll
rostral part of the face formed mainly by the maxillary and nasal bones
Muzzle
point at which the windpipe meets the head on the ventral aspect of head; strap of a bridle or halter passes here
Throat Latch
area dorsal to scapulas
Withers
circumference of thorax at the level of the heart
Heart Girth
truck of the body- formed by the rib cage and the abdomen
Barrel
lateral surface of the abdomen between the last rib and the hand legs
Flank
either side of the backbone between the hipbone and the ribs in humans as well as quadrupeds
Loin
the part of a quadruped that corresponds to the human buttocks
Croup
tarsus
Hock
joint between cannon bone and the proximal phalax of hoofed animals
Fetlock
area of the proximal phalanx of hoofed animals
Pasten
the fold of skin on the neck
Dewlap
...
Heel
The bottom portion of the hoof that the animal
actually stands on. It is made of the same type of cells
as the hoof wall, only it is slightly softer than the wall.
Sole
the hind part of an animal
Rump
Dorsal part of the base of the tail
Tail Head
tuber coxae
Hook Bones (Tuber Coxae)
pin bones
Pin Bones (Tuber Ischii)
indention
Paralumbar Fossa
The two separate digits (toes) of a cloven hoof.
Medial and Lateral Claws
The accessory toe at the back of the hoof that
serves no function.
Medial and Lateral Dewclaws
end of a boline tail
Switch
mammary gland of bovine
Udder
contains primarily the major organs of digestion
Abdominal Cavity
chest cavity
Thoracic Cavity
The space within the abdomen that contains the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, reproductive organs, and urinary bladder.
Peritoneal Cavitiy
cavity that recieves food for digestion
Oral Cavity
superior opening of the true pelvis
Pelvic Inlet
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
Mediastinum
teeth located just lateral to the incisor teeth
Canine Teeth
most rostral group of teeth
Incisor Teeth
rostral cheek teeth
Premolar Teeth
caudal cheek teeth
Molar Teeth
the complete arched arrangement of upper or lower teeth
Dental Arch
left or right half of each dental arch
Quadrant
exposed part of a tooth above the gum line
Crown
hidden part of a tooth below the gum line
Root
area where the roots of a multirooted tooth join the crown
Furcation
toward the crown of a tooth
Coronal
toward the tip of the root of a tooth
Apical
toward the gingiva (gum)
Gingival
surface of a tooth facing the cheeks
Buccal
surface or edige facing toward the rostral end of the mouth
Mesial
surface of an upper tooth facving the hard palate
Palatal
surface of a lower tooth facing the tongue
Lingual
surface of a tooth facing the lips
Labial
the flat grinding surface of molar teeth
Occlusal