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28 terms

Super Quiz Theories/Ideas on Evolution

From the Acalon list in the Super Quiz Kit
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Allopatric Model of Speciation
Leopold von Buch; occurs when species are geographically isolated; sympatry
Big Bang
Belgian astronomer and Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre
Biological Species Concept
species is a group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring with one another
Biologist's View of Evolution in the Nineteenth Century
accepted evolution but rejected natural selection b/c of blending theory of inheritance; evolution by chance
Biometrician's View of Evolution
speciation occurred in small shifts of the whole population and rejected macromutations
Blending Theory of Inheritance
offspring blend with thier parents' traits
Catastrophism
Earth and geological events formed suddenly as the result of some great catastrophe; Abraham Gottlob Werner and Baron Georges Cuvier
Cuvier's Idea of Species
species fixity
Darwinian Evolution
change over time via natural selection; not automatically progressive; blending theory of inheritance
Directed Mutation (Directed Variation)
offspring tend to differ from their parents in a certain direction for an unknown reason; Lamarckian inheritance; bird protowing
Evo Devo
evolutionary devolopmental biology; most animals share the same tool kit genes which can be turned on/off; emphasis on gene expression
Evolution
organisms change in form and behavior through time b/c of genetic variation
Evolutionary Uniformitarianism
Peter and Rosemary Grant; analogous to Lyell's geographic uniformitarianism; evolution has always occurred at the same rates
Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection
rate of adaptive change is directly proportional to the genetic variation that is present
Fixity of Species
species could not change b/c God had created them as perfect creatures
Genome Size
theory that larger genome sizes lead to larger cells
Goldschmidt's Theory
speciation was product of macromutations, not selection of small variants; opposite of biometricians
Larmack's View of Evolution
lineages lasted indefinitely, changing from one from to another; species did not go extinct, changed via internal forces and acquired characteristics
Lamarckian Inheritance
offspring tend to differ from their parents due to the characteristics acquired during their parents' lifetime; giraffes
Mendel's Theory of Genetics
alleles are seperate and do not merge
Mendelian's View of Evolution prior to the Modern Synthesis
speciation occurred by macromutations and rejected natural selection
Modern Synthesis
merger of Mendelian genetics with Darwinian evolution; "changes in allele frequencies within populations"; RA Fisher, Sewall Wright, Dobzhansky, Mayr, Simpson, and G Ledyard Stebbins
Natural Selection
Darwin and Wallace; organisms with favorable traits were more fit relative to other organisms, more likely to survive; directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selecting
Neutral Theory
Motoo Kimura; evolutionary rates and polymorphisms in terms of mutation and genetic drift; proven to be wrong
New Systematics
defined a species by their ability to interbreed rather than a "type" species
Punctuated Equilibrium
Gould and Eldredge; fossil record; macroevolution occurs in abrupt changes from one species to another with the lack of a transitional form
Principle of Biological Succession
William "Strata" Smith; each period of the Earth's history has its own sets of fossils
Robson and Richard's Theory
GC Robson and OW Richards; did not accept Mendelism or Darwinism; believed difference b/w species were non-adaptive