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Allopatric Model of Speciation
Leopold von Buch; occurs when species are geographically isolated; sympatry
Biological Species Concept
species is a group of organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring with one another
Biologist's View of Evolution in the Nineteenth Century
accepted evolution but rejected natural selection b/c of blending theory of inheritance; evolution by chance
Biometrician's View of Evolution
speciation occurred in small shifts of the whole population and rejected macromutations
Earth and geological events formed suddenly as the result of some great catastrophe; Abraham Gottlob Werner and Baron Georges Cuvier
change over time via natural selection; not automatically progressive; blending theory of inheritance
Directed Mutation (Directed Variation)
offspring tend to differ from their parents in a certain direction for an unknown reason; Lamarckian inheritance; bird protowing
evolutionary devolopmental biology; most animals share the same tool kit genes which can be turned on/off; emphasis on gene expression
Peter and Rosemary Grant; analogous to Lyell's geographic uniformitarianism; evolution has always occurred at the same rates
Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection
rate of adaptive change is directly proportional to the genetic variation that is present
speciation was product of macromutations, not selection of small variants; opposite of biometricians
Larmack's View of Evolution
lineages lasted indefinitely, changing from one from to another; species did not go extinct, changed via internal forces and acquired characteristics
offspring tend to differ from their parents due to the characteristics acquired during their parents' lifetime; giraffes
Mendelian's View of Evolution prior to the Modern Synthesis
speciation occurred by macromutations and rejected natural selection
merger of Mendelian genetics with Darwinian evolution; "changes in allele frequencies within populations"; RA Fisher, Sewall Wright, Dobzhansky, Mayr, Simpson, and G Ledyard Stebbins
Darwin and Wallace; organisms with favorable traits were more fit relative to other organisms, more likely to survive; directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selecting
Motoo Kimura; evolutionary rates and polymorphisms in terms of mutation and genetic drift; proven to be wrong
Gould and Eldredge; fossil record; macroevolution occurs in abrupt changes from one species to another with the lack of a transitional form
Principle of Biological Succession
William "Strata" Smith; each period of the Earth's history has its own sets of fossils
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