AP World History Chapter 2
Study guides from Mr. Kienast's AP World class at Mcintosh High School.
Terms in this set (130)
First dynasty that united the Persian Empire; started by Cyrus.
liberator that expanded the Persian empire West, took over Assyrian empire and freed the people under Assyrian control (Hebrews) He also held his own slaves.
Cyrus's son, expanded the Persian empire East all the way to the Indus river.
most famous for starting the wars against the Greeks (Persian War)
son of Darius, faught in wars against the Spartans and Greeks; ended up weakening the Persian empire.
sections/ regions in which areas of the Persian empire were separated (like states and provinces)
leader of each satrapy (like a governor)
religion of the people of the Persian empire
book written by Zoroaster and serves as the religious text for Zoroastrianism
god in which Zoroastrianism is centered around.
Greek period from the end of the dark ages to the beginning of the Persian Wars.
Greek period from the end of the Persian wars to Alexander the Great.
servants who were "bound" to the land, but one step above slaves. Also called serfs
individual soldiers or warriors in a phalanx
fighting style used by Greeks.
process in which citizens are chosen at random to do an assigned job in the community.
process in which citizens voted to eliminate the people who were doing a poor job.
ancient temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to the Greek goddess, Athena.
great believers in not accepting true fact.
famous teacher/philosopher who "dyed" for his principles; taught his students to question authority; was put to jail and was killed by his choice of not wanting to stop teaching.
student of Socrates, wrote the political science book, "the Republic"
philosopher who wrote "Politics"
wrote the Oresteia trilogy
wrote "Oedipus the King Antigone"
greek city-state where Pheidippides ran to tell the victories to Athens.
messenger who tells Athens about the victories in Marathon
known for the battle that took place here between the Greek forces including 300 Spartans and the Persian forces.
Spartan warrior who decided to stay behind to hold the pass against the Persians.
Salamis and Platea
2 final battles of the Persians
massive war between Greek city states; Sparta won; all Greek city states were destroyed.
alliance formed by Athens and other city-states to fight off Persia by joining military forces.
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire
religious figures that have evolved over time from different countries/regions.
Romans believed they were descended from him.
Romulus and Remus
ancient story of twins who were raised by wolves; established Rome and it was named after them.
upper-class elite Romans, only people who were allowed to be a government official.
lower-class non aristocratic Romans.
city in Italy that was destroyed by Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE
volcano that erupted and destroyed Pompeii in 79 CE
influenced by language, culture, government, and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
set of life philosophies involving discipline, strength, loyalty, logic, and empirical evidence.
Latin term for a potential guiding the course of events in a particular place or the whole world, used in Roman philosophical and religious thought.
guardian deities in ancient Roman religion.
conception of the afterlife that evolved over time and was maintained by certain Greek religious sects and cults.
largest amphitheater of its time; gladiator matches were held here.
a Roman outdoor arena in which public games, such as chariot races, were held
monument built to the Roman gods with an enormous dome on top.
public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law
a pipeline or channel built to carry water to populated areas
one of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges
people in charge of civil law; fairly powerful.
Assembly of Centuries
made laws for Rome and selected the consuls.
controlled finances and money, advised the consuls; do not have the right to pass laws.
Assembly of Tribes
the roman legislative branch, body of plebeians who elected the tribunes,
fought against Carthage(neighboring empire to Rome); Rome won and received some land that was Carthage's and expanded the Roman empire.
Pompey, Crassus, Caesar
Idles of March
superstitious day for Romans
Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius
killed Caesar in 44 BCE
Octavian (Augustas Caesar), Marc Antony, Marcus Lepidus
the first emperor of Rome; created peace in the Roman empire and kept it prospering.
era of peace in Roman empire
horrible leaders related to Julias Caesar; Caligula, Nero
huge hill fortress in Israel where Jewish rebels decided to fight against Rome; Romans ended up taking over the hill, so all the Jewish rebels committed suicide so they wouldn't be captured by Romans.
Jesus of Nazareth
prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah
a Roman province on the eastern coast of the Mediteranean
a type of execution in which a person is nailed to a cross and left to die
a title given to Jesus that means "anointed one"
the headquarters of the Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy
A Hellenistic mystery religion that appealed to soldiers and involved the worship of the god Mithra
December 17-23; Saturn - God of agriculture; Gift giving; feasting; a slave would be chosen to be master of the day
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Edict of Milan
a ruling by Constantine that allowed Christians to openly practice their faith in the Roman empire.
Council of Nicaea
The first gathering of Christian Bishops to try to find a clearly defined doctrine, set up by Emperor Constantine
Time of the Warring States
a period in which China was divided into several provinces, and they were all at war with eachother
creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthlss conquests of rival states and standardization
Chinese emperor who brought the Han dynasty to its greatest strength
nomads who terrorized the border and were defeated by Wudi. Lived in the steppes or grasslands north of China. Were the biggest threat to security.
the domination of one state over its allies
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire
the capital of the Eastern Zhou dynasty
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth
a basic subdivision of humanity in the Hindu caste system
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
Hindu priests at the top of the caste system.
second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; WARRIORS
The artisan and merchant varna of the caste system; 3rd level of the caste system
fourth caste of laborers, craftworkers and servants in the Indian caste system
the name of the group of people outside the caste system; they were the contained the outcasts of society and untouchables, were not considered a part of Indian society or the caste system
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
three parts of the Trimurti (holy trinity)
the Hindu's god with no attributes. Hindus want to reach this universal spirit.
He was Muhammad's son-in-law. Spread Islam into Afghanistan and the eastern Mediterranean. Organized the Navy, improved the government, and built more roads, bridges and canals. Distributed text of the Quran.
the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.
sacred scriptures containing Hinduism's core teachings
A Hindu epic written in Sanskrit that describes the adventures of the king Rama and his queen
A Hindu epic written in Sanskrit that deals with many episodes with the struggle between 2 rival families; longest epic in the WORLD.
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
the founder of the Buddist religion,he was known as Buddha or "the enlightened one"
when Budda left his life of riches in search of spiritual happiness and a sense of meaning.
movement away from religion and toward science
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
The Eightfold Path
The path that all Buddhists want to follow; not too much pleasure, and not too much suffering.
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism
He established Jainism in the 500s; He emphasized meditation, self-denial and non-violence to all living things.
a dome-shaped structure that serves as a Buddhist shrine
Buddhist religious building developed by Asoka, carved from cliffs for monks to live and meditate in
He founded India's first empire (Mauryan Empire.) He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.
The captial of both Muryan and Gupta empires
Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare.
political treatise written during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya; advocated the use of all tactics in scientific conduct of warfare.
a ruler of the Mauryan Empire who converted to Buddhism
Time of war, but also benefited off trade that passed through their lands between the Silk road
founder of the Gupta empire, he forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges Region and established a dynamic kingdom about the year 320 C.E.
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing personal salvation through your own efforts
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
The Vehicle of the Diamond. Named for the vajra, the Buddha's diamond scepter; prevalent form of Buddhism in Tibet; emphasizes the harnessing of sensual energies to attain nirvana.
city in southern Uzbekistan, under the rule of timur lenk, the city of samarkan became the most infulential city, town of wealthy trade, crafts, and beautiful actutecture
city in Uzbekistan with an oasis on the Silk Road; former capital of Muslim dynasty
Iranian ruling dynasty between ca. 250 B.C.E. and 226 C.E.; first empire to foster the silk road.
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
a discrimination between things as different and distinct
the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skills-1000BC - 1000AD