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<4 ng/mL

Normal PSA

Sit on the superior and medial portion of the kidneys

Suprarenal glands (adrenal)

Endocrine glands with a cortex and medulla

Suprarenal glands

Concave glands

Suprarenal glands

Highly vascular and receive multiple arteries

Inferior phrenic artery, abdominal aorta, and renal artery

Celiac plexus, and the greater thoracic splanchnic nerve

Nerve supply of the suprarenal glands

Left kidney

Normally larger

Right kidney

Slightly lower than the left

Two types of nephrons

Juxtamedullary and cortical nephrons

Extends deep into the medulla of the kidney

Juxtamedullary nephron

Renal corpuscle and the renal tubule

Nephron's two basic units

Consist of a network of capillaries

Renal corpuscles

Lie in the cortex of the kidney

Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

The parietal layer

Outer layer of the Bowman's capsule

Visceral layer

Inner layer of Bowman's capsule

Second component of the nephron

Renal tubules

Kidneys are bounded

Psoas muscles on the medial side, transverse abdominal muscles on the lateral, and the quadratus lumborum muscles posteriorly.

A membranous sheet

Renal fascia

Great increase in surface area

Proximal convoluted tubule

Increased reabsorption and secretion

Proximal convoluted tubule

Plays a significant role in urine concentration

Loop of Henle and Distal convoluted tubule

Restricts movement of blood, cells, and large molecules

Glomerular capillary endothelium

Allows passage of molecules smaller than plasma proteins

Glomerular basement membrane

Final barrier before slit pore and lumen

Bowman's capsule, visceral layer

High concentration of glomeruli, looks granular in apperance

Outer zone, the cortex

Consiste of straight tubules and connecting ducts, has a striated appearance

Inner zone, the medulla

The initial portions of the system of extrarenal ducts

Minor calyces

Drains the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the kidney into a common renal pelvis

Major calyces

Conducts urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder


Supplies branches that are classified as visceral, parietal, or terminal

Abdominal aorta

Situated lower and greater in length

Right renal artery

Renal vein that is longer


Rise on both the anterior and posterior sides of the kidney sinus

Renal veins

The effect on urine production is second to

Changes in blood supply

Bladder is prevented from reflux

Muscular contraction upon the ureter

In the male, the bladder lies on and is attached to

Base of the prostate gland

In the female, the bladder lies on

Pelvic diaphragm

Testes, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts,and the penis

Male genital organs

Prostate and bulbourethral glands

Male accessory structures

20 cm in length

Male urethra

Prostatic, membranous, and spongy

Parts of the urethra

4 cm in length

Female urethra

Covers most of the testis, epididymis, and lower end of the spermatic cord

Tunica vaginalis

A thick external covering of connective tissue on the testes

Tunica albuginea

Comes from the duct of the epididymis and is 45 cm long

Ductus vas deferens

Ascends through the inguinal canal as the center portion of the spermatic cord

Ductus vas deferens

Contained within the prostate gland

Ejaculatory ducts

A seminal tract accessory gland that lies under the bladder

Prostate gland

Covered with endopelvic fascia

Prostate gland

Can be benign or malignant, usually present with hematuria

Bladder tumors

Tumors that occur only in young adults

Benign tumors or papillomas

Used to locate bladder tumors

Intravenous urogram (IVU)

Bladder tumor diagnosis


Bladder tumors removed


Come from the epithelial lining of the bladder and affect individuals over 50, mostly men

Malignant neoplasms

Symptoms - painful urination, frequent urination, passage of small amounts of urine, flank pain - mild to severe, nausea and vomiting, UTI, Hematuria

Urinary Calculi

Affect fluid and electrolyte balance, blood volume, and the ability to filter out waste products

Kidney disorders


Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

Dialysis done by gravity


Most common type of peritoneal dialysis



Continous cyclic peritoneal dialysis

Dialysis done at home while patient sleeps



Intermittent peritoneal dialysis

Recommended treatment for renal cell carcinoma that has not spread

Radical nephrectomy

Five year survival rate around 75%

Renal cell carcinoma

Performed suprapubically or retropubically and accompanied by pelvic lymph node dissection

Radical prostatectomy

Radiation and/or hormone therapy may be the sole treatment

Prostate cancer

Cadavers, living relatives, or unrelated living donors

Organs for kidney transplant

Spleen and lymph nodes are removed to

Aid in tissue typing and cross-matching the donor with the recipient

Kidneys are flushed

Collins solution (a preservative)

Perferred kidney for donation from a living donor

Left kidney (renal vein is longer)

80% kidney transplant success rate

Unrelated donor

90% kidney transplant success rate

Related donor

Best kidney transplant success rate

Identical twin

Kidney to be transplanted


Graft placed in an adult

Right pelvis through a Gibson incision

Suture for the arterial anastomosis of a kidney transplant

6-0 polypropylene

Graft placed in a child

Midline incision, kidney placed in the mid-retroperitoneum posterior to the right colon

Provides an internal view of the genitourinary tract

Transurethral endoscopy

Urinary tract endoscopy is referred to as


The main purpose of urinary tract endoscopy


Suspension of the fascial attachments of the bladder to the rectus fascia with sutures

Stamey procedure

Abnormal dilation of the spermatic veins


Condition usually occurs on the left side


A congenital condition in the male where the urethra ends on the ventral side of the glans penis, anywhere along the penile shaft, on the corona, or on the perineum



Reversal of a vasectomy

Procedure done to correct obstructions of the vas deferens due to congenital anomalies, inflammation, or trauma


Performed to treat adenomas that are too large for endoscopic, or to remove malignancy

Suprapubic prostatectomy

Provides better visualization of the prostatic fossa, allowing for better hemostatic control

Retrobubic prostatectomy

To identify ureters

Indigo carmine

Rarely used for prostate

Perineal prostatectomy

Exaggerated lithotomy position with extreme Trendelenburg position to do procedure

Perineal prostatectomy

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