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ESSC 101 Lesson 8 Ignenous Rocks, part 2
Terms in this set (23)
Igneous rocks form when ________ cools and solidifies, and the location and speed in which they cool influence their textures.
Intrusive or Plutonic Igneous Rocks
cools form when molten rock (magma) solidifies slowly, deep underground in huge pools known as batholiths or in narrow dikes or sills
Molten rock beneath the earth's surface
A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust
Extrusive or Volcanic Igneous Rocks
from when molten rock (lava) solidifies quickly at the Earth's surface in thin layers
Magma that reaches Earth's surface
phaneretic or pegmatitic
textural classification of igneous rocks for plutonic (intrusive) rocks where crystals are all going to be large or at least visible to the naked eye
a texture of igneous rocks in which the interlocking crystals are extra large or all larger than one centimeter in diameter
coarse grained or large crystals
aphanetic or porphyritic texture
textural classification of igneous rocks for volcanic (extrusive) rocks where crystals are all going to be at least some if not all of the crystals are going to be very small
"Fine-grained" Mineral crystals too small to see without aid of microscope or hand lens.
mainly microscopic crystals with some larger crystals
Rock chemical composition
particularly silica (SiO₂) content, determines mineral content and general color of minerals that make up the rock.
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
Rock with a chemical content between felsic and mafic compositions.
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
igneous rock composed mainly of iron and magnesium-rich minerals
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core that has less than half of its composition from silica.
The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle that has much higher abundance of its composition from silica.
Potassium is only found in
felsic rocks, and it leaves behind an obvious effect, like if it has a salmon-y pink color or light color.
Besides silica, aluminum, sodium and calcium are found in
intermediate rock, which can have a light or dark color.
Besides silica, magnesium, iron and calcium are found in
mafic rock, which can have a dark color.
Besides silica, magnesium and iron are found in
ultramafic rock, which are usually a green color because of their iron composition.
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