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Anatomy Integumentary Quiz Review
Terms in this set (40)
What are the 7 functions of skin?
1. Protection (chemical, physical and biological barriers)
3. Movement without injury
5. Vitamin D production
6. Blood reservoir
What percent of body weight does skin make up?
epithelial cells, the outermost protective shield of the body.
under the epidermis, makes up the bulk of the skin, tough, leathery, fibrous connective tissue, vascularized.
Subcutaneous layer deep to skin
hypo = below
Not part of skin but share some functions
Mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates
Anchors the underlying structures - mostly muscle
What are the four epidermal cells?
Langerhans(Dendritic), Melanocytes, Keratinocytes, Tactile
produce keratin a fibrous protein fibers protect
spider shaped cell synthesizes pigment (melanin)
in the deepest layer of the epidermis
star shaped, aka Langerhans cells
ingest foreign substances
activators of the immune system.
found at the epidermal-dermal junction aka Merkel cells
sensory receptor for touch
Which layer of the epidermis is only found in thick skin?
What are the layers of the epidermis? in order
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
20-30 cells layers thick
cells are dead
Protects hostile environment Prevents water loss (water resistant)
Glycolipids between cells makes this layer water resistant
Barrier from biological,
chemical and physical assaults.
Keratin and thick plasma membrane provide protection from abrasion and penetration
If this layer is damaged, the body is prone to infection.
Found in thick skin only (palms and soles)
Filled with Keratin and absent in thin skin.
Thin (4-6 cell layers)
Cell appearance change
Cells flatten, nuclei and organelles disintegrate
Cells fill with 2 types of granules:
Cells above this layer die
They are too far from dermal capillaries
Cells bound together by desmosomes
gives this layer a spiky appearance(artifact in slide)
Several cell layers thick
Single layer of columnar cells
Large stem cells located here which rapidly undergo cell division (mitosis = produces 2 daughter cells)
Takes 25-45 days to travel to the surface
One cell remains as stem cell
special area between the dermis and epidermis that holds the layers together
What tissue is found in the papillary layer?
areolar connective tissue
Peglike projections indent the overlying epidermis
In the dermal papillary
contain capillary loops
free nerve endings
meissner's corpuscles (touch receptors)
In thick skin, these papillae lie atop large mounds called dermal ridges which cause the overlaying epidermis to form epidermal ridges used for gripping and touch sensation.
This layer responsible for
~ 80% of the dermal thickness
Dense fibrous connective tissue
Contains the cutaneous plexus = network of blood vessels that nourishes this layer
Extracellular matrix contains:
Provide stretch and recoil properties of the skin
Thick bundles of collagen fibers
Provide skin strength and resilience
Binds water to keep skin hydrated
Separations between these bundles form cleavage lines.
What are the three colors that contribute to skin color?
melanin (yellow, brown, black), carotene (orange, yellow), hemoglobin (red)
What are the four functions of hair?
Detect insects before they bite or sting
Hair on scale protects from physical trauma, heat loss and sunlight
Eyelashes shield the eyes
Nose hairs filter large particles from the air we breath
Insoluble, sulfur-containing fibrous protein
main structural molecule in hair and nails and is also present in the ski
Found in hair and nails;
- grows in fibers
- less moisture than skin
found in the epidermis of the skin in the form of flattened non-nucleated scales that slough continually.
- grows in flat sheets
- contain more moisture than hair
keratinization is complete, projects from the skin.
keratinization is still ongoing, remainder of the hair deep within the follicle
central core, soft keratin, absent in fine hair
bulky layer, surrounds medulla, several layers of flattened cells
single layer of overlapping cells, "roof shingles", heavily keratinized, loss of this layer creates split ends.
fold down from the epidermal surface into the dermis.
deep end of the follicle, ~4mm below skin surface.
papillary bump at the base of the hair bulb. Similar to the dermal papilla.
located a fraction of a millimeter about the hair bulb, actively dividing area of the hair that produces the hair.
Scale-like modification of the epidermis, forms clear protective covering on fingers and toes
Heavily keratinized epidermal cells
Abundant in the palms, soles of feet and forehead.
Simple, coiled, tubular gland
Empties through a pore at the skin surface
Larger and deeper in the dermis
Ducts empty into hair follicles
Secretes sweat, fatty substances and proteins
Cause blemishes when puberty begins
Ceruminous glands -ear wax secretion
Mammary glands - secrete milk
Found all over the body except in the thick skin of palms and soles of feet.
Secrete a waxy, oily substance called sebum
Functionally they are holocrine glands
Secret sebum into the hair follicle
Also contributes to blemishes during puberty
Whiteheads = accumulated secretion
Blackheads = solid material invaded by bacteria
Provides lubrication and antibacterial action
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