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Chapter 11B AP Euro
Terms in this set (49)
Act of Succession
(1534) document passed by the Reformation Parliament in the same year as the Act of Supremacy that made Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the English throne
Act of Supremacy
(1534) proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.
Act of Uniformity
(1549) an act of parliament that reasserted the "Book of Common Prayer" with some Catholic alterations as the chief book for all English churches
a protestant group that believed in baptizing only those people who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state; also were pacifists that were against the act of war and violence
a lady-in-waiting of Catherine of Aragon, she later became Henry VIII's second wife in 1533 after he broke off with the church through Reformation Parliament in order to legally divorce his first wife. Although both parents were desperate for a son in order to have him be the heir, she bore Henry a daughter, soon-to-be Queen Elizabeth I. In 1536, she was executed for alleged treason (a crime against one's government), adultery, and incest.
"Book of Common Prayer"
(1549) written by Thomas Cranmer, one of King Henry VIII spiritual advisors in the break with the Roman Church, this book was imposed on all English churches with the installation of King Edward VI's Act of Uniformity. A revised addition was imposed with the Second Act of Uniformity, along with a 42-article confession of faith by Cranmer, that helped establish a moderate Protestant doctrine in England.
Swiss theologian, born in France, whose tenets of predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564). Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote the "Institutes of Christian Religion" (1536). Born into a well-to-do French family, he was the son of the secretary to the Bishop of Noyon. At 12, he received church benefices that would help educate him. However, in the spring of 1534, he became Protestant and surrendered the benefices that had secured his education.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born), and the individual's responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
This group emerged when a group of Franciscans decided to return to the simplicity and poverty of Saint Francis, the medieval founder of the Franciscan order. They preached the Gospel directly to the people and emerged as an effective force against Protestantism.
Catherine of Aragon
Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, and aunt to Emperor Charles the V. Married Henry VIII in 1509. When Henry VIII needed a son to continue the Tudor dynasty, and he found out she could not give him one (only a daughter, Mary), he sought an annulment. Of course, the Catholic Church denied him one, and in return Henry VIII split England from the Catholic Church.
Holy Roman Emperor and Charles I of Spain, he had inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Empire from his grandparents. Wanting to keep Europe religiously united, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. However, he was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not stay solely focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
Church of England
The state of church established by King Henry VIII after he broke away from the Catholic church when he was not allowed a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henry made few Protestant changes, keeping his church mainly Catholic. English clergy were forbidden to marry despite Henry's many amorous affairs. His Six Articles of 1539 were written to reaffirm transubstantiation, deny the Eucharistic cup to the laity, declare celibate vows inviolable, prove for private masses, and order the continuation of oral confession.
Council of Trent
(1545-1563) a council of three sessions, spread out over eighteen years, with long interruptions due to war, plague and imperial and papal politics. First called by Pope Paul III to reassert church doctrine due to insists by Emperor Charles V and the growing success of the Protestant Reformation. Steps were taken to curtail the selling of church offices and other religious goods. Many bishops who resided in Rome were forced to move to their diocese. Strengthened the authority of local bishops. New rules made that required bishops to preach regularly, be neatly dressed, better educated and active among their parishioiners. However, this council reaffirmed the traditional Scholastic education of the clergy (transubstantiation, good works, etc.)
the response to the Protestant Reformation. Catholic churches willing to reform in order to win back Protestants to their side. Began with the Council of Trent in 1545. The Roman Inquisition was born, in which those who were believed to be heretic were brought in and brutally questioned.
stood in as a replacement for Thomas Wolsey after he was dismissed, he became one of Henry VIII's closest advisors. He convinced Henry VIII that, in order to get divorced from Catherine, he would need to break away from Rome. He was appointed by Henry as Archbishop of Canterburry in 1533. and lead the Convocation (legislative assembly representing English clergy) in declaring Henry's marriage to Catherine null and void. He also wrote the "Book of Common Prayer".
Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary Thomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant. He commanded the monasteries of England to surrender their lands and possessions to nobles of the state.
"Cuius Regio, Eius Religio"
The ruler of the land determines the religion.
King of England at the mere age of 10 after Henry VIII died. He reigned under the succesive regencies of Edward Seymour and the ear of Warwick. His advisors enacted the English reformation by corresponding with Calvin. Under Seymour's reign, Henry's Six Articles and laws against Protestant heresy were repealed, and clerical marriage with communtion with cup became approved. Later, he died in his teens and was succeeded by Mary I.
Queen of England, ruled from 1558-1603; followed a policy that was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes. She sets up a national Church, is declared head of the Anglican Church (Church of England), establishes a state Church that moderates Catholics and Protestants, allowed priests to marry, allowed sermons to be delivered in English, and made the Book of Common Prayer more acceptable to Catholics. Daughter of Anne Boleyn.
The sacrament of Jesus' body and blood truly and really present under the appearances of the bread and wine.
King Henry VIII
(r. 1509-1547) King of England, unhappily married to Catherine of Aragon. He yearned for a son to inherit the throne, that of which his wife could not provide. Broke off with the Roman Church in order to annul his marriage to his wife and later married Anne Boleyn. Created the Anglican Church, the Church of England.
Ignatius of Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
"Index of Forbidden Books"
(1559) Written by Pope Paul IV as part of the Counter-Reformation. It forbade Catholics from reading books considered "harmful" to faith and morals. This indicates the significance of the printing press in disseminating Reformation ideas.
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
(1536) book written by John Calvin as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some learning already and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty; vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox, particularly Roman Catholicism. Calvin introduces his theory on predestination.
Founded by Ignatius de Loyola (1534), they were a religious order that spread Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation. Taught that good Catholics should deny themselves without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction. Perfect discipline and self-control were essential condition of such obedience, they believed.
A Catholic monk and theologian who noticed big differences between scripture and Church practices. He brought the public's attention to the hypocrisy he saw among high church officials, first with the 95 Theses, and then with many other written works. German princes supported and protected him, because freedom from the Catholic Church would mean freedom from the taxes, tax exemptions, and power the Church held over them. Pope Leo X and Charles V ordered him to recant at the Diet at Worms, but he refused.
(1529) Landgrave Philip of Hesse hoped to unite Swiss and German Protestants in a mutual defense pact by inviting both Zwingly and Luther to his castle in October. His efforts were spoiled by Zwingli and Luther's disagreement on Christ's presence within the Eucharist. Zwingly believed it to be purely a symbolic act--commemorating the last supper and Christ's sacrifice for mankind. Luther, on the other hand, believed there was a spiritual presence in the bread and wine at the time of communion. Both Protestant leaders left the meeting feeling distrust for the other, which splinters and divides the Protestant group into several divisions.
(r. 1553-1558) came to throne after Edward VI of England died. Daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. She restored Catholic doctrine to England alike her father.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, and Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for refusing to recognize the Act of Succession, in which all of Anne Boleyn's children were made the legitimate heirs to the English throne, and the Act of Supremacy, in which it declared Henry VIII the supreme head of the English church.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) An agreement between Charles V and the princes of Germany. Ended all German religious warfare in 1555. It declared that Lutheranism was a legal, permanent religion along with Catholicism. It also stated that German princes could determine the religion over his subjects. However, Calvinism and Anabaptism was not recognized under this agreement.
Often associated with Calvinism in the Protestant Reformation, it is the doctrine that God has already chosen who will be saved and become Christian and that people have no actual choice in the matter.
Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. During this period, it passed legislation that harassed and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult with and work through Parliament. Henry VIII came to this and asked to be head of church in order to separate legally from his wife.
the term used to describe the changing of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ that takes place during the consecration of the Mass, by the power of the Holy Spirit through the words and actions of the priest
This Protestant man was a Humanist who helped translate the Bible so that all people could read it in their own religion. He translated the New Testament, but was executed before he could finish the Old Testament because he was not supported by the English government in his translating in the early 16th century. Regardless, his New Testament begins to circulate England in 1526.
Katherine Von Bora
Luther's wife, raised to be a nun but ran away to Luthur's teachings. Had 6 children, supported Luthur, but argued about women's equality in mariage.
Cardinal highest ranking church offical and lord chancellor. DIsmissed by Henry VIII for not getting the Pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. (1471-1530)
(1484-1531) Swiss humanist, priest and disciple of Erasmus. After the Battle of Marignano in Italy in 1515, he became a critic of Swiss mercenary sevice, believing it threatened political sovereignity. By 1518, he became known for opposition against the sale of indulgences. He won people's priest post in Church of Zurich. He believed anything that was not written in Scripture was not to be believed.
Protestants were more likely than Catholics to:
a. advocate religious tolerance
b. permit premarital sex
c. permit divorce
d. advocate religious violence
e. advocate gender equality
Between 1500 and 1600, European men married in their:
b. mid-late teens
c. mid-late twenties
d. mid-late thirties
e. early teens
Cervantes's most famous work is:
a. "Moll Flanders"
c. "Under a Spanish Sky"
d. "The Tale of Tomas Gatito"
e. "Don Quixote"
The Marburg Colloquy sought to:
a. unite Spanish and Italian Catholics
b. unite Swiss and German Protestants
c. establish a new Catholic council system
d. establish religious tolerance throughout Europe
e. outlaw Calvinism in Britain
Ignatius of Loyola was the founder of the:
a. Brotherhood of Christ
Which of the following practices did Zwingli NOT question and repudiate in the course of his reforms?
a. worship of saints
d. clerical celibacy
e. church attendance
Reform efforts of the Council of Trent included all of the following EXCEPT:
a. several doctrinal concession to the reformers
b. creation of new seminaries
c. reform of the office of bishop
d. machinery to control the morality of churchmen
e. steps to curtail the selling of church offices
The Anabaptists were:
a. embraced by the Lutherans
b. embraced by Zwinglians
c. convinced that all babies should be baptized at birth
d. convinced that they had not really broken fromt he Catholic church
e. seen as a threat to good order by the political authorities
According to the doctrine of predestination:
a. God has foreordained who will be saved and who will be damned.
b. Christians must set salvation as their only goal before it can be achieved
c. theological fdoctrine must begin with ends and then work back to means
d. only men are capable of salvation
e. divorce is a mortal sin
a. implemented many of the education reforms of humanism.
b. rejected humanism
c. were unwilling to allow divorce
d. believed only men should be taught to read
e. generally supported scholasticism
Protestant reformers tended to do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. favor clerical marriage
b. encourage basic education
c. oppose monasticism
d. see marriage as a degraded state
e. oppose the celibate life
Church founded by John Knox in Scotland on the ideas of Calvin. Became nationalized government of Scotland, and in 1564, the Book of Common Order became the liturgical directory. Eventually spread to the New World.
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