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Psych 315: Exam 2, Chapter 6 Study Questions
Terms in this set (75)
According to Erikson, a healthy outcome of the parent-child relationship during infancy depends on__________.
quality of caregiving
According to Erikson's psychological theory, when_______, the psychological conflict of the first year is resolved on the positive side.
the balance of care is sympathetic and loving
Two-year-old Eva's parents meet her assertions of independence with tolerance and understanding. They provide suitable guidance and reassurance. According to Erikson's theory, Eva will develop __________ as a result.
According to Erikson, when parents are over-or-under controlling, the outcome is a child who_________.
feels forced or shamed
Which of these is a basic emotion?
____________have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival.
During the first few weeks of life, newborns are moszt likely to smile__________.
when they are full
Baby Sabrina's first laugh will probably appear around __________.
3 to 4 months
Which situation is most likely to evoke Carl's first laugh?
his sister saying, "Here I come!" and kissing his tummy
As infants understand more about their world, they laugh_______.
at events with subtler elements of surprise
When 11-month-old Delia's mother greets her, Delia is likely to display a________.
broad, "cheek raised"
Newborn babies respond with_______ to change in body temperature.
From 4 to 6 months into the second year, angry expressions __________.
increase in both frequency and intensity
Shortly after she gave birth to Max, Tanisha's mood plunged. She fell anxious, weepy, overwhelmed, and angry at a loss of control over her own schedule. As a result of Tanisha's postpartum depression, Max probably___________.
produced low levels of the stress hormone cortisol
Research on maternal depression shows that __________.
depressed mothers view their infants negatively, which contributes to their inept caregiving
is linked to frequent father-child conflict as children grow older.
When Reggie takes his baby son, Arnie, to his workplace for the first time, Reggie's assistant abruptly picks Arnie up and starts walking around the office. Arnie cries and reaches out for Reggie. Arnie is expressing ________.
The rise in fear after age 6 months is adaptive because it___________.
keeps newly mobile babies' enthusiasm for exploration in check
Infants' emotional expressions are_________.
closely tied to their ability to intercept the motional cues of others
In social referencing experiment, 18-month-old Joey is asked to share spinach or graham crackers with his mother; Even though Joey prefers graham crackers, he might offer the spinach to his mother if she________.
uses her voice and facial expressions to convey a preference for the spinach
involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self
After being gently scolded for taking a toy away from his cousin, 20-month-old Rainer lowers his eyes, hangs his head, and hides his face with his hands. Rainer is expressing_______.
Besides self-awareness, self-conscious emotions require an additional ingredient:__________.
adult instruction in when to feel proud, ashamed, or guilty
Biyu, who lives in a culture that values interdependence, wins a game and says, "Yay! I got the best score." Her parents will probably encourage Biyu to feel ________.
embarrassed for seeking individual attention
requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions
Joan, who does not like being scared, decides she does not want to ride on the kiddie coaster with the other children at the carnival. Joan is showing evidence of ________.
Which statement about sex differences in emotion regulation is true?
Boys get more training than girls in how to suppress negative emotion.
Jaynie is cheerful and upbeat. Alayna is prone to angry outbursts. These descriptions refer to ________.
Bindi quickly establishes regular routines, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences. In Thomas and Chess's model of temperament, Bindi would be classified as a(n) ________ child.
Joh is inactive and negative in mood. He shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli. In Thomas and Chess's model of temperament, Joh would be classified as a(n) ________ child.
According to Thomas and Chess's temperament research, ________ children are at high risk for anxious withdrawal and aggressive behavior in early and middle childhood.
Mary Rothbart's model of temperament includes both ________ and ________.
fearful distress: irritable distress
Liam can effectively focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses, and manage negative emotion. Liam is skilled at ________.
Most neurobiological research has focused on children who fall at opposite extremes of the ________ and ________ dimensions of temperament.
Individual differences in ________ contribute to the contrasting temperaments of shyness and sociability.
arousal of the amygdala
George is an extremely shy preschooler. To acquire effective social skills, George will need ________.
parenting tailored to his temperament
The overall stability of temperament is ________ from the preschool years on.
Observation of which child would be most likely to provide a researcher with an accurate long-term prediction of temperament?
Gerald, age 4 years
Children more easily develop the ability to manage their emotional reactivity when ________.
they experience patient, supportive parenting
About half of individual differences in temperament and personality have been attributed to differences in________.
Girls tend to be __________ than boys.
more compliant and cooperative
Young children with the short 5-HTTLPR gene who are exposed to maladaptive parenting ________.
readily develop externalizing problems
________ involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive functioning.
Goodness of fit
By ________, infants have become attached to familiar people who have responded to their needs.
the second half-year
John Bowlby, who first applied ethological theory of attachment to infants and caregivers, was inspired by Konrad Lorenz's studies of ________.
Four-month-old Aiden smiles, laughs, and babbles more freely when interacting with his mother and quiets more quickly when she picks him up, compared to an unfamiliar caregiver. But he does not protest when separated from his mother. According to Bowlby, Aiden is in the ________ phase.
"attachment in the making"
In Bowlby's "clear-cut" attachment phase, babies display ________.
Erika becomes upset when her father leaves. When her father is present, Erika approaches, follows, and climbs on him in preference to others. Erika is most likely in Bowlby's ________ phase.
During Bowlby's ________ phase, children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter her goals.
Three-year-old Marcus asks his grandmother to read him a story before she leaves him at his child-care center. Marcus is in Bowlby's ________ phase.
formation of a reciprocal relationship
According to Bowlby, the ________ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.
internal working model
In the Strange Situation, Bernadette uses her mother as a secure base. When separated, Bernadette does not cry, but when her mother returns, Bernadette smiles and quickly crawls to her. Bernadette is demonstrating ________ attachment.
In the Strange Situation, infants with insecure-avoidant attachment ________.
seem unresponsive to the parent when the parent is present
In the Strange Situation, Philip seeks closeness to his mother and often fails to explore. When his mother leaves, Philip is distressed, and on her return he alternately clings to her and hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of ________ attachment
The ________ attachment pattern reflects the greatest insecurity.
Quality of attachment is usually secure and stable for ________.
middle-SES babies experiencing favorable life conditions
Cross-cultural evidence indicates that ________.
Japanese infants rarely show resistant attachment
Yvonne adopted her son, Uri, from an orphanage in the Ukraine, where he spent his first three years. As a result of his long institutional stay, Uri is likely to have a larger than average ________ and to perform poorly on tasks requiring ________.
amygdala; emotional self-regulation
________ is moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures and SES groups.
Cross-cultural research suggests that attachment security depends on ________.
Among maltreated infants, ________ attachment is especially common
Babies with the short 5-HTTLPR gene are more likely than infants with a low-risk genotype to exhibit ________ attachment, but only when caregiving is ________.
Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive or negative, tend to have ________ children.
Mothers tend to devote more time with their babies to ________, whereas fathers tend to devote more time to ________.
physical care; playful interaction
Among married couples in the United States, today's fathers spend nearly ________ as much time caring for children as fathers did in 1965.
Paternal availability to children is fairly similar across U.S. SES and ethnic groups, with one exception: ________ fathers spend ________ time engaged with their infants and young children.
Mounting evidence indicates that ________ determines whether attachment security is linked to later development.
continuity of caregiving
Newborns' remarkable capacity for ________ supports the beginnings of self-awareness.
Implicit self-awareness, evident in discrimination of one's own limb and facial movements from those of others, is first evident at ________.
about 3 months
A researcher places some red dye on 2-year-old Raven's nose. When she looks into a mirror, she tries to rub the dye off of her nose rather than off of the mirror. This behavior indicates that she has developed ________.
Two-year-old Vanessa attempts to put her doll's jacket on herself. She then attempts to sit in her doll's highchair. Vanessa is displaying ________.
When Joojo sees his cousin Esi crying, he offers her the blanket that he uses to comfort himself. This shows that Joojo is developing ________.
Two-year-old Stephanie tells her mother, "I a good girl." This statement demonstrates that Stephanie is beginning to develop ________.
a categorical self
Children who are advanced in development of attention, language, and suppressing negative emotion tend to be ________.
better at delaying gratification
Marissa wants to help her 18-month-old daughter, Isabel, develop self-control. Which strategy is likely to be helpful?
As Isabel's cognition and language improve, gradually increase the number of rules she is expected to follow.
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Psychology 315 Exam 1 Study Questions (Chapter 3)
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